Download full The Ideal Planner eBook or read it online by anytime or anywhere, Available in format PDF, ePub and Kindle. Click button to Get Books and search your favorite books from the online library. Get Free Account to access unlimited books, download fast and without ads! Some books may be limited by the author, therefore we cannot guarantee that The Ideal Planner book is in the library. Read the full book today as many books as you like for personal use only.

My Ideal Bookshelf Book by

My Ideal Bookshelf Book
  • Author :
  • Publisher : Little, Brown
  • Release Date : 2012-11-13
  • Category: Literary Collections
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN Code: 0316225002

Summary: The books that we choose to keep -- let alone read -- can say a lot about who we are and how we see ourselves. In My Ideal Bookshelf, dozens of leading cultural figures share the books that matter to them most; books that define their dreams and ambitions and in many cases helped them find their way in the world. Contributors include Malcolm Gladwell, Thomas Keller, Michael Chabon, Alice Waters, James Patterson, Maira Kalman, Judd Apatow, Chuck Klosterman, Miranda July, Alex Ross, Nancy Pearl, David Chang, Patti Smith, Jennifer Egan, and Dave Eggers, among many others. With colorful and endearingly hand-rendered images of book spines by Jane Mount, and first-person commentary from all the contributors, this is a perfect gift for avid readers, writers, and all who have known the influence of a great book.

The Death and Life of Great American Cities Book by Jane Jacobs

The Death and Life of Great American Cities Book
  • Author : Jane Jacobs
  • Publisher : Vintage
  • Release Date : 2016-07-20
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 480
  • ISBN Code: 052543285X

Summary: Thirty years after its publication, The Death and Life of Great American Cities was described by The New York Times as "perhaps the most influential single work in the history of town planning....[It] can also be seen in a much larger context. It is first of all a work of literature; the descriptions of street life as a kind of ballet and the bitingly satiric account of traditional planning theory can still be read for pleasure even by those who long ago absorbed and appropriated the book's arguments." Jane Jacobs, an editor and writer on architecture in New York City in the early sixties, argued that urban diversity and vitality were being destroyed by powerful architects and city planners. Rigorous, sane, and delightfully epigrammatic, Jacobs's small masterpiece is a blueprint for the humanistic management of cities. It is sensible, knowledgeable, readable, indispensable. The author has written a new foreword for this Modern Library edition.

Being a Planner in Society Book by Nicholas Low

Being a Planner in Society Book
  • Author : Nicholas Low
  • Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
  • Release Date : 2020-08-28
  • Category: Political Science
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN Code: 1788973798

Summary: This timely book addresses what it is to be a planner in a changing world: a world in need of transformation in the way planning is done in order to tackle social problems and ecological crises. Nicholas Low argues for the need to revalue public planning, sensitive to the social context in which it takes place.

The Economics Anti-Textbook Book by Rod Hill,Tony Myatt

The Economics Anti-Textbook Book
  • Author : Rod Hill,Tony Myatt
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release Date : 2010-03-11
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 316
  • ISBN Code: 1848135483

Summary: Mainstream textbooks present economics as an objective science free from value judgements; that settles disputes by testing hypotheses; that applies a pre-determined body of principles; and contains policy prescriptions supported by a consensus of professional opinion. The Economics Anti-Textbook argues that this is a myth - one which is not only dangerously misleading but also bland and boring. It challenges the mainstream textbooks' assumptions, arguments, models and evidence. It puts the controversy and excitement back into economics to reveal a fascinating and a vibrant field of study - one which is more an 'art of persuasion' than it is a science. The Economics Anti-Textbook's chapters parallel the major topics in the typical text, beginning with a boiled-down account of them before presenting an analysis and critique. Drawing on the work of leading economists, the Anti-Textbook lays bare the blind spots in the texts and their sins of omission and commission. It shows where hidden value judgements are made and when contrary evidence is ignored. It shows the claims made without any evidence and the alternative theories that aren't mentioned. It shows the importance of power, social context and legal framework. The Economics Anti-Textbook is the students' guide to decoding the textbooks and shows how real economics is much more interesting than most economists are willing to let on.

Foundations of Knowledge Acquisition Book by Susan Chipman,Alan L. Meyrowitz

Foundations of Knowledge Acquisition Book
  • Author : Susan Chipman,Alan L. Meyrowitz
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Category: Computers
  • Pages : 339
  • ISBN Code: 1461531721

Summary: One of the most intriguing questions about the new computer technology that has appeared over the past few decades is whether we humans will ever be able to make computers learn. As is painfully obvious to even the most casual computer user, most current computers do not. Yet if we could devise learning techniques that enable computers to routinely improve their performance through experience, the impact would be enormous. The result would be an explosion of new computer applications that would suddenly become economically feasible (e. g. , personalized computer assistants that automatically tune themselves to the needs of individual users), and a dramatic improvement in the quality of current computer applications (e. g. , imagine an airline scheduling program that improves its scheduling method based on analyzing past delays). And while the potential economic impact ofsuccessful learning methods is sufficient reason to invest in research into machine learning, there is a second significant reason: studying machine learning helps us understand our own human learning abilities and disabilities, leading to the possibility of improved methods in education. While many open questions remain aboutthe methods by which machines and humans might learn, significant progress has been made.

The Kitchen Table Financial Plan Book by Victor S. Levy

The Kitchen Table Financial Plan Book
  • Author : Victor S. Levy
  • Publisher : Greenleaf Book Group
  • Release Date : 2016-09-27
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 198
  • ISBN Code: 163299089X

Summary: Ever been curious, frightened, or intimidated about planning your financial future? No matter what age you are, how much you earn, or where you are in life, you will find that you are not alone once you’ve read The Kitchen Table Financial Plan. Author Victor Levy gives us a down-to-earth, reassuring, and authoritative window into the world of personal financial planning. At the core of the book is his genuine belief that every financial plan is an honest, living document, and as such, should be worked out comfortably in the heart of the home—at the kitchen table. He shows us just how a plan is done, and how—with the right kind of planner—we’ll never need to feel alone as we take on our financial future. Levy’s book will show you how individuals can gain control of their financial lives by employing the services of a financial planning team—and what the process of planning can look like. Levy underscores the empathetic, professional, and highly supportive nature of the ideal planner. He obviously loves his topic and is clearly someone whose vocation is in planning and helping others. ​Through the story of a fictional dentist and his relatable extended family, the author painlessly introduces us to official forms, agendas, memoranda, and other documents that in any other setting might seem overwhelming. But the progress of the family as they work toward their financial freedom simultaneously provides us with an easy-to-understand lesson on attaining that same confidence and peace of mind. Read The Kitchen Table Financial Plan and you’ll sleep well knowing that help with planning can be within your reach.

Machine Learning Methods for Planning Book by Steven Minton

Machine Learning Methods for Planning Book
  • Author : Steven Minton
  • Publisher : Morgan Kaufmann
  • Release Date : 2014-05-12
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 554
  • ISBN Code: 1483221172

Summary: Machine Learning Methods for Planning provides information pertinent to learning methods for planning and scheduling. This book covers a wide variety of learning methods and learning architectures, including analogical, case-based, decision-tree, explanation-based, and reinforcement learning. Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of planning and scheduling and describes some representative learning systems that have been developed for these tasks. This text then describes a learning apprentice for calendar management. Other chapters consider the problem of temporal credit assignment and describe tractable classes of problems for which optimal plans can be derived. This book discusses as well how reactive, integrated systems give rise to new requirements and opportunities for machine learning. The final chapter deals with a method for learning problem decompositions, which is based on an idealized model of efficiency for problem-reduction search. This book is a valuable resource for production managers, planners, scientists, and research workers.

Economic Theory, Welfare, and the State Book by Athanasios Asimakopulos,Robert D. Cairns

Economic Theory, Welfare, and the State Book
  • Author : Athanasios Asimakopulos,Robert D. Cairns
  • Publisher : McGill-Queen\'s Press - MQUP
  • Release Date : 1991-02-01
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN Code: 0773563032

Summary: Economic Theory, Welfare, and the State looks at how economic theory can be used to investigate and analyse the operations of market economies and to provide the basis for improvements in government policy-making. The collection begins with two chapters on the history of economic thought, followed by an exploration of possible areas of conflict between the interests of groups and individuals, and an insightful blend of economic history and economic theory that sheds light on the Canadian government's policy of settling the Prairies by providing land grants. Also included are a critical analysis of rational expectations models and their use in econometrics, an examination of why money should be treated as a public good, and two contributions on international trade theory. Two chapters deal with the problem of maintaining satisfactory levels of employment and three chapters examine different aspects of public pensions. Among the contributors to this volume are a former teacher of Weldon's, his fellow students and colleagues, and former students. They are Louis Ascah, Athanasios Asimakopulos, Clarence Lyle Barber, Kenneth E. Boulding, John Burbidge, Robert D. Cairns, John S. Chipman, John H. Dales, Christopher Green, Peter Howitt, Murray C. Kemp, Gideon Rosenbluth, Robin Rowley, Thomas K. Rymes, David Schwartzman, Dan Usher, and Shigemi Yabuuchi.

Procrastination Cure: 2 in 1: How To Stop Procrastination, Live Up To Your Full Potential And Succeed In Life: Includes Goal Setting Success and Productivity Plan Book by Tiffany Adams

Procrastination Cure: 2 in 1: How To Stop Procrastination, Live Up To Your Full Potential And Succeed In Life: Includes Goal Setting Success and Productivity Plan Book
  • Author : Tiffany Adams
  • Publisher : Roland Bind
  • Release Date : 2020-03-27
  • Category: Self-Help
  • Pages : 100
  • ISBN Code:

Summary: How to achieve your goals and reach success faster than ever? Do you often feel like your goals are out of your reach? Do you get stressed when you think of making plans, setting goals or creating resolutions? Do you easily get distracted and unmotivated, because everything you want seems far away or unattainable, costs too much effort or requires a lot of sacrifices? If those images make your stomach hurt and make you feel overwhelmed by the pressure of fulfilling everything to a tee, then this book has the answers you need. We all procrastinate from time to time, putting off important duties until the last moment. The problem starts when that habit begins to interfere with your professional or personal life, like your job, relations with friends or your spouse, or your education. In "Procrastination Cure", you will discover: - How to find, set and achieve the right goal for you with 8 simple tricks - How one thing we all hate can actually help you stay on track to success - An easy-to-follow 31-day plan designed to help you overcome procrastination once and for all - How modern technology plays a much larger role in procrastination than you may have expected - How some people can help you in achieving your goal, and how to avoid those who will prevent it - What may be the barriers you will face, and how to easily combat them - How a simple acronym can magically make everything seem achievable - The dangers that procrastination pose to your health if not properly addressed in time Once you find out how easy it is to set up a simple, yet effective course of action and keep up with it, you will be amazed by how much your life will change for the better. If you are now browsing books instead of doing something important, then the universe wants to tell you something. Don't wait until the last moment. Check out this guidebook to immediately start your new and improved life of success.

Overthinking Book by Carmen Betancur

Overthinking Book
  • Author : Carmen Betancur
  • Publisher : Roland Bind
  • Release Date : 2020-03-27
  • Category: Self-Help
  • Pages : 100
  • ISBN Code:

Summary: Are you sick and tired of watching your life pass you by? Pay close attention here, because the life of your dreams is closer than you might think... We've all been there, life is overwhelming, complicated, confusing, and yes, within it all you still seemingly have all that a person should ever need to feel happy and fulfilled. But for some reason, you just don't feel this way. There's an emptiness inside of you that you can't seem to escape and no matter what you do, it just seems to keep getting worse. The answer to a life of fulfillment, gratitude, and undeniable happiness protruding from every pore of your being is simply this - you need to understand your mind. In Overthinking, you'll discover: - What are the 8 most common negative thought patterns and how to combat them - The most straightforward guide to facing your emotional triggers and rewriting your thought process loops that is out there - The first steps you should take to reduce the clutter in your mind - Powerful tools for separating yourself from your mind - How to make a s.m.a.r.t. plan and keep yourself on track with P.A.C.T. - 5 ways in which becoming your own best friend can lead to a calm life filled with optimism you deserve - An idiotproof path to rebuilding self-worth - The most important things not to do when rewriting your brain, saving you valuable time and energy ... and so much more. Overthinking is the #1 guide to understanding your mind and your emotions so that you can navigate your life in any direction you want. No more wondering if it's possible, no more daydreaming of a future where things might get easier. No more of this comparing yourself to others and feeling incomplete as a result. It is yours for the taking - if you would understand your mind and begin to actively take back control.

Productivity Plan Book by Tiffany Adams

Productivity Plan Book
  • Author : Tiffany Adams
  • Publisher : Roland Bind
  • Release Date : 2019-12-16
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 130
  • ISBN Code:

Summary: The never-ending lie you keep telling yourself that will lead to your ultimate demise... You glance over at the stack of open envelopes whispering your name at the side of your desk, wrinkling your nose and wincing just at the thought of having to deal with paying the bills. Not right now, I can’t focus on that. I’ll do it by the end of today, after my lunch break. Lunch break goes by, no bills have been paid yet. Then, dinner. Still no paid bills. The sunlight floods your room and the birds sing you their good morning song as you stretch your arms above your head and smile at the thought of it being the weekend. No alarms to be woken up by, you can finally enjoy a nice breakfast at your own leisurely pace, and plans can be made according to your wishes. Suddenly, all those feelings of peace drain from your body. The bills! I should have paid those last week! The smile disappears from your face and all you are left with is the feeling of shame and disappointment. Why do I keep doing this to myself? You may continue to ask yourself every time a scenario like this plays out. These situations are all too common, yet many people neglect to address the issue at hand and simply allow others to label them as “lazy.” There comes a point in life where you need to take responsibility for your bad habits and make the effort to change it for your own well-being and, well, sanity. That point in your life is right now. In Productivity Plan, you will discover: - The #1 reason why you can’t seem to kick your bad habit out of the picture - An easy-to-follow 31-day plan designed to help you overcome procrastination once and for all - The main factor to keep in mind when implementing change in your lifestyle - The top strategies that will specifically help you become a more productive individual - Prompts and activities to help you uncover the secret behind why you do what you do - How modern technology plays a much larger role in procrastination than you may have expected - The dangers that procrastination pose to your health if not properly addressed in time And much more. Even if you’re notorious for being that person who always gets things done at a later time, putting it off until you have no more excuses left to use, you are capable of changing your habits. No one is unable to change, not even you, no matter how long your habits have persisted. And if you think being a perpetual procrastinator isn’t a big deal, that it’s just a harmless personality trait, think again. In the end, it will ruin your life. From Dalai Lama himself come the wise words, “You must not procrastinate. Rather you should make preparations so that even if you die tonight, you would have no regrets.” No one wants to live a life full of regrets and feelings of failure, so why should you? Do your future self a favor, and squash that bad habit of procrastinating like a bug. If you are tired of feeling inefficient and hopeless and finally want to live a life where productivity comes as second nature to you, then check out this guidebook right now.

Urban Planning Education Book by Andrea I. Frank,Christopher Silver

Urban Planning Education Book
  • Author : Andrea I. Frank,Christopher Silver
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-07-29
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 345
  • ISBN Code: 3319559672

Summary: This book examines planning education provision and approaches globally, through a comparative and longitudinal perspective. It explores the emergence of planning education in the 20th century, with its rich variation and yet a remarkable degree of cross-fertilization. Each of the sections of the book is framed by an overview essay which has been prepared by the editors to provide the reader with a critical exposure to relevant scholarship drawing on the detailed case studies and exploratory essays on key issues in planning education. The first part of this volume focuses on the emergence of planning education programs in the twentieth century as a way to understand the current planning education environment. Then we explore how education in urban, regional and spatial planning has developed in different ways in different countries and continents. The final part of this volume aims to envision how planning can adapt and develop to remain relevant to the development of human environments in the 21st century. Urban planning education has become a pervasive practice throughout the world as urbanization and development pressures have increased over the past half century, and as demand increased for professional trained experts to guide those processes. The approaches vary widely, based in part upon the discipline from which the planning program developed as well as the context-specific challenges within the country or region where the program resides.

The Burnout Solution Book by Siobhan Murray

The Burnout Solution Book
  • Author : Siobhan Murray
  • Publisher : Gill & Macmillan Ltd
  • Release Date : 2018-12-21
  • Category: Self-Help
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN Code: 0717180956

Summary: Burnout is a state of chronic stress that leads to physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, detachment, feelings of ineffectiveness and lack of accomplishment – many of the same symptoms as depression. Burnout is on the increase as we struggle to juggle the pressures of work and family life with a constant feeling of always being on. Through her own experience of burnout and her work as a psychotherapist, Siobhán Murray has developed a 12-week plan for overcoming this condition. The Burnout Solution offers a step-by-step path through feelings of stress and anxiety towards renewed clarity of mind and an ability to prioritise the important things in life. Learn the beauty of saying no, rethink your boundaries, find your ‘non-negotiables’ and regain your power, passion and sense of purpose.

The SAGE Handbook of Advertising Book by Gerard J Tellis,Tim Ambler

The SAGE Handbook of Advertising Book
  • Author : Gerard J Tellis,Tim Ambler
  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Release Date : 2007-10-24
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 512
  • ISBN Code: 147397156X

Summary: 'In this era of 'snackable' content which satisfies only in the moment, it's great to have a comprehensive Advertising Handbook which one can consult repeatedly. The references are comprehensive and the Handbook opens up many key areas for practitioners' - Hamish Pringle, Director General, IPA 'Finally, a Handbook of Advertising that brings the field up-to-date. I am impressed with its comprehensive coverage of topics and the distinguished specialists who have shared their key findings with us' - Philip Kotler, Kellogg School of Management 'When trying to make sense of the mystifying world of advertising, academics and practitioners often seem to inhabit separate universes. Not in this Handbook. For once, the best brains from each side genuinely collude – with constructive results. Wise agencies will read it before their clients do' - Sir Martin Sorrell, CEO, WPP 'This mighty tome brings together a vast range of views of advertising based on deep experience and scholarship. For practitioners and academics alike, it will be a voyage of discovery and enlightenment' - Lord (Maurice) Saatchi, Chairman, M&C Saatchi 'This magnificent volume captures all we need to know about how advertising works and its context' - Baroness (Peta) Buscombe, Director General, Advertising Association, London Advertising is a field that has attracted a great deal of academic attention, but to date there has been no summarising of the state of the art of research. This far reaching and scholarly Handbook is edited by two highly respected and trusted thinkers in the field and includes contributions from leading academics based in both the UK and the USA. Tim Ambler and Gerald J Tellis archive their aim of setting advertising and the theory that underpins it in its historical and societal context, show-casing the most significant advertising research questions of our time and pointing readers in the direction of future avenues for fruitful investigation. The SAGE Handbook of Advertising would be a welcome addition to any marketing academics bookshelf.

Beyond Belief Book by Srirupa Roy

Beyond Belief Book
  • Author : Srirupa Roy
  • Publisher : Duke University Press
  • Release Date : 2007-05-07
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN Code: 0822389916

Summary: Beyond Belief is a bold rethinking of the formation and consolidation of nation-state ideologies. Analyzing India during the first two decades following its foundation as a sovereign nation-state in 1947, Srirupa Roy explores how nationalists are turned into nationals, subjects into citizens, and the colonial state into a sovereign nation-state. Roy argues that the postcolonial nation-state is consolidated not, as many have asserted, by efforts to imagine a shared cultural community, but rather by the production of a recognizable and authoritative identity for the state. This project—of making the state the entity identified as the nation’s authoritative representative—emphasizes the natural cultural diversity of the nation and upholds the state as the sole unifier or manager of the “naturally” fragmented nation; the state is unified through diversity. Roy considers several different ways that identification with the Indian nation-state was produced and consolidated during the 1950s and 1960s. She looks at how the Films Division of India, a state-owned documentary and newsreel production agency, allowed national audiences to “see the state”; how the “unity in diversity” formation of nationhood was reinforced in commemorations of India’s annual Republic Day; and how the government produced a policy discourse claiming that scientific development was the ultimate national need and the most pressing priority for the state to address. She also analyzes the fate of the steel towns—industrial townships built to house the workers of nationalized steel plants—which were upheld as the exemplary national spaces of the new India. By prioritizing the role of actual manifestations of and encounters with the state, Roy moves beyond theories of nationalism and state formation based on collective belief.

Rescuing the Enlightenment from Itself Book by Janet McIntyre-Mills

Rescuing the Enlightenment from Itself Book
  • Author : Janet McIntyre-Mills
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2005-12-27
  • Category: Political Science
  • Pages : 370
  • ISBN Code: 0387275894

Summary: Rescuing the Enlightenment from Itself: Critical and Systemic Implications for Democracy presents papers that make the case that good governance is about thinking and practice that can lead to a better balance of social, cultural, political, economic and environmental concerns to ensure a sustainable future for ourselves and for future generations. The work is inspired by the thinking of C. West Churchman and forms the first volume in a new series: C. West Churchman’s Legacy and Related Works. The book features contributions from a range of invited authors including Russell L. Ackoff, Ken Bausch, John van Gigch and Norma Romm. The volume is aimed at academics, post-graduate students and members of professional associations working in the fields of systems sciences, public policy and management, politics, and international relations.

Town Planning Practice Book by Lawrence Wai-Chung Lai,Ki Fong

Town Planning Practice Book
  • Author : Lawrence Wai-Chung Lai,Ki Fong
  • Publisher : Hong Kong University Press
  • Release Date : 2000-07-01
  • Category: Architecture
  • Pages : 260
  • ISBN Code: 962209516X

Summary: This book is the first systematic attempt to introduce the current practice and statistics of town planning in Hong Kong. Part I gives an analytical account of the practical and ideological context, discusses design principles and describes procedures of town planning with particular reference to change in use. The emphasis is on skills of plan interpretation and an appreciation of the intellectual disposition of planners and various objective constraints confronting them. Part II is the first of its kind in presenting and analysing the statistics of planning applications for 11 zones from 1978 to 1998. The success rates of planning applications as well as the main reasons used by the Town Planning Board for rejecting planning applications are elucidated.

Geographers Book by Charles W. J. Withers,Hayden Lorimer

Geographers Book
  • Author : Charles W. J. Withers,Hayden Lorimer
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release Date : 2015-12-14
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 184
  • ISBN Code: 147422704X

Summary: This twenty-sixth volume of Geographers: Biobibliographical Studies brings together essays on leading figures in time geography and regional theory, on GIS, on regional, cultural and political geography, on scriptural geography, historical geography and methodology, and on African exploration. Each essay engages with the individual's contribution to geography, their works and their lives and the intellectual and social contexts in which they worked and which helped shape them. In addition - and to mark the new co-editorial pairing leading the series - the volume has an essay on the history of GBS, on the importance of biographical work in the history of geography and on issues to be addressed by the scholarly communities engaged in promoting this vital area of geographical research.

Man and Africa Book by G. E. W. Wolstenholme,Maeve O'Connor

Man and Africa Book
  • Author : G. E. W. Wolstenholme,Maeve O'Connor
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2009-09-16
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN Code: 0470716959

Summary: The Novartis Foundation Series is a popular collection of the proceedings from Novartis Foundation Symposia, in which groups of leading scientists from a range of topics across biology, chemistry and medicine assembled to present papers and discuss results. The Novartis Foundation, originally known as the Ciba Foundation, is well known to scientists and clinicians around the world.

Urban Planning Theory since 1945 Book by Nigel Taylor

Urban Planning Theory since 1945 Book
  • Author : Nigel Taylor
  • Publisher : SAGE
  • Release Date : 1998-06-11
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN Code: 1446237451

Summary: Following the Second World War, modern systems of urban and regional planning were established in Britain and most other developed countries. In this book, Nigel Taylor describes the changes in planning thought which have taken place since then. He outlines the main theories of planning, from the traditional view of urban planning as an exercise in physical design, to the systems and rational process views of planning of the 1960s; from Marxist accounts of the role of planning in capitalist society in the 1970s, to theories about planning implementation, and more recent views of planning as a form of `communicative action'.