Download full Rare Earth eBook or read it online by anytime or anywhere, Available in format PDF, ePub and Kindle. Click button to Get Books and search your favorite books from the online library. Get Free Account to access unlimited books, download fast and without ads! Some books may be limited by the author, therefore we cannot guarantee that Rare Earth book is in the library. Read the full book today as many books as you like for personal use only.

Rare Earth Book by

Rare Earth Book
  • Author :
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2007-05-08
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 338
  • ISBN Code: 0387218483
  • GET BOOK

Summary: What determines whether complex life will arise on a planet, or even any life at all? Questions such as these are investigated in this groundbreaking book. In doing so, the authors synthesize information from astronomy, biology, and paleontology, and apply it to what we know about the rise of life on Earth and to what could possibly happen elsewhere in the universe. Everyone who has been thrilled by the recent discoveries of extrasolar planets and the indications of life on Mars and the Jovian moon Europa will be fascinated by Rare Earth, and its implications for those who look to the heavens for companionship.

The Rare Earth Elements Book by J.H.L. Voncken

The Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : J.H.L. Voncken
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-12-24
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 127
  • ISBN Code: 3319268090
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This book deals with the rare earth elements (REE), which are a series of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide series of elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium). They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application. This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.

Rare Earth Chemistry Book by Rainer Pöttgen,Thomas Jüstel,Cristian A. Strassert

Rare Earth Chemistry Book
  • Author : Rainer Pöttgen,Thomas Jüstel,Cristian A. Strassert
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release Date : 2020-10-26
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 669
  • ISBN Code: 311065492X
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This work introduces into the chemistry, materials science and technology of Rare Earth Elements. The chapters by experienced lecturers describe comprehensively the recent studies of their characteristics, properties and applications in functional materials. Due to the broad range of covered topics as hydrogen storage materials, LEDs or permanent magnets this work gives an up-to-date presentation of this fascinating research.

The Rare Earth Elements Book by David A. Atwood

The Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : David A. Atwood
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2013-02-19
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 696
  • ISBN Code: 111863263X
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Lanthanides are of great importance for the electronic industries, this new book (from the EIBC Book Series) provides a comprehensive coverage of the basic chemistry, particularly inorganic chemistry, of the lanthanoid elements, those having a 4f shell of electrons. A chapter is describing the similarity of the Group 3 elements, Sc, Y, La, the group from which the lanthanoids originate and the group 13 elements, particularly aluminum, having similar properties. Inclusion of the group 3 and 13 elements demonstrates how the lanthanoid elements relate to other, more common, elements in the Periodic Table. Beginning chapters describe the occurrence and mineralogy of the elements, with a focus on structural features observed in compounds described in later chapters. The majority of the chapters is organized by the oxidation state of the elements, Ln(0), Ln(II), Ln(III), and Ln(IV). Within this organization the chapters are further distinguished by type of compound, inorganic (oxides and hydroxides, aqueous speciation, halides, alkoxides, amides and thiolates, and chelates) and organometallic. Concluding chapters deal with diverse and critically important applications of the lanthanoids in electronic and magnetic materials, and medical imaging.

Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors Book by Maria Forsyth,Bruce Hinton

Rare Earth-Based Corrosion Inhibitors Book
  • Author : Maria Forsyth,Bruce Hinton
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2014-08-12
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 338
  • ISBN Code: 0857093584
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Corrosion inhibitors are an important method for minimizing corrosion; however traditional inhibitors such as chromates pose environmental problems. Rare earth metals provide an important, environmentally-friendly alternative. This book provides a comprehensive review of current research and examines how rare earth metals can be used to prevent corrosion and applied to protect metals in such industries as aerospace and construction. Chapter 1 begins by examining the important need to replace chromate, and then goes on to discuss the chemistry of the rare earth metals and their related compounds. Chapter 2 considers the techniques that can be used to identify corrosion inhibition mechanisms and to test the levels of protection offered to different metals by rare earth compounds. Subsequent chapters consider in more detail how rare earth elements can be used as corrosion inhibitors in different forms and for different metals. This includes discussion on the potential of rare earth elements for self-healing, tunable and multifunctional coatings. Finally, chapter 10 considers the cost and availability of the rare earths and the potential health and environmental risks associated with extracting them. Provides a review of current research and examines how rare earth metals can be used to prevent corrosion and applied to protect metals in such industries as aerospace and construction. Includes discussion on the potential of rare earth elements for self-healing, tunable and multifunctional coatings. Considers the cost and availability of the rare earths and the potential health and environmental risks associated with extracting them.

Rare Earth Materials Book by A.R. Jha

Rare Earth Materials Book
  • Author : A.R. Jha
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2014-06-17
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 371
  • ISBN Code: 1466564032
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Recent studies indicate that China accounts for about 96 percent of the world’s supply of rare earth materials (REMs). With REMs becoming increasingly important for a growing number of high-tech applications, appropriate action must be taken to mitigate the effects of a shortage of critical REMs in defense systems and components. Bringing together information previously available only from disparate journal articles and databases, Rare Earth Materials: Properties and Applications describes the unique characteristics and applications of 17 REMs. It defines their chemical, electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics. Maintaining a focus on physical and chemical properties, it addresses the history and critical issues pertaining to mining and processing of REMs. In this book, Dr. A.R. Jha continues his distinguished track record of distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework that can be extended to practical applications across commercial and industrial frameworks. He summarizes the chemical, optical, electrical, thermal, magnetic, and spectroscopic properties of REMs best suited for next-generation commercial and military systems or equipment. Coverage includes extraction, recycling, refinement, visual inspection, identification of spectroscopic parameters, quality control, element separation based on specific application, pricing control, and environmental / geo-political considerations. Potential applications are identified with an emphasis on scientific instruments, nuclear resonance imaging equipment, MRI systems, magnetic couplers for uranium enrichment equipment, battery-electrodes, electric motors, electric generators, underwater sensors, and commercial and military sensors. The book describes unique applications of rare earth magnets in all-electric and hybrid electric cars and microwave components. It also considers the use of rare earth magnets in commercial and military systems where weight and size are the critical design requirements. Suitable for both students and design engineers involved in the development of high-technology components or systems, the book concludes by summarizing future applications in electro-optic systems and components, including infrared lasers, diode-pumped solid-state lasers operating at room temperatures, and other sophisticated military and commercial test equipment

Rare Earths Book by Jacques Lucas,Pierre Lucas,Thierry Le Mercier,Alain Rollat,William G. Davenport

Rare Earths Book
  • Author : Jacques Lucas,Pierre Lucas,Thierry Le Mercier,Alain Rollat,William G. Davenport
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2014-09-09
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 410
  • ISBN Code: 0444627448
  • GET BOOK

Summary: High-technology and environmental applications of the rare-earth elements (REE) have grown dramatically in diversity and importance over the past four decades. This book provides a scientific understanding of rare earth properties and uses, present and future. It also points the way to efficient recycle of the rare earths in end-of-use products and efficient use of rare earths in new products. Scientists and students will appreciate the book's approach to the availability, structure and properties of rare earths and how they have led to myriad critical uses, present and future. Experts should buy this book to get an integrated picture of production and use (present and future) of rare earths and the science behind this picture. This book will prove valuable to.non-scientists as well in order to get an integrated picture of production and use of rare earths in the 21st Century, and the science behind this picture. Defines the chemical, physical and structural properties of rare earths. Gives the reader a basic understanding of what rare earths can do for us. Describes uses of each rare earth with chemical, physics, and structural explanations for the properties that underlie those uses. Allows the reader to understand how rare earths behave and why they are used in present applications and will be used in future applications. Explains to the reader where and how rare earths are found and produced and how they are best recycled to minimize environmental impact and energy and water consumption.

Rare Earth Elements Book by Marc Humphries

Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : Marc Humphries
  • Publisher : DIANE Publishing
  • Release Date : 2010-11
  • Category:
  • Pages : 14
  • ISBN Code: 1437937985
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) What are Rare Earth Elements (REE)?; (3) Major End Uses and Applications: Demand for REE; The Application of REE in National Defense; (4) Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential; Supply Chain Issues; Role of China; (5) Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress: H.R. 4866, and S. 3521, the Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010; H.R. 5136, the FY 2011 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; P.L. 111-84, the FY 2010 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; (6) Possible Policy Options: Authorize and Appropriate Funding for a USGS Assessment; Support and Encourage Greater Exploration for REE; Challenge China on Its Export Policy; Establish a Stockpile. Illustrations.

Critical and Rare Earth Elements Book by Abhilash,Ata Akcil

Critical and Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : Abhilash,Ata Akcil
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2019-11-11
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN Code: 0429659814
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This book is aimed to compile the distribution of rare earth elements in various resources with their processing from secondary resources. It includes details of various processes developed for extraction of rare earth elements from varied raw materials ranging from e-wastes, tailings, process wastes and residues. It emphasizes importance of processing of the secondary resources to assist environmental remediation of such untreated wastes and get finished products. It covers all aspects of rare metals and rare earth metals in one volume covering extraction, separation and recycling of secondary resources for extraction of these metals along with relevant case studies.

Rare Earth Element Geochemistry Book by P. Henderson

Rare Earth Element Geochemistry Book
  • Author : P. Henderson
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2013-10-22
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 510
  • ISBN Code: 148328977X
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Developments in Geochemistry, Volume 2: Rare Earth Element Geochemistry presents the remarkable developments in the chemistry and geochemistry of the rare earth elements. This book discusses the analytical techniques and the recognition that rare earth fractionation occurs naturally in different ways. Organized into 13 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the wide array of types and sizes of the cation coordination polyhedral in rock-forming minerals. This text then examines the application of rare earth element abundances to petrogenetic problems that has centered on the evolution of igneous rocks. Other chapters consider the matching of observed rare earth element abundances with those provided by the theoretical modeling of petrogenetic processes. This book discusses as well the hypotheses on the genesis of a rock or mineral suite. The final chapter deals with the principal analytical methods. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduates, lecturers, and researchers who study petrology and geochemistry.

Rare-Earth Borides Book by Dmytro S. Inosov

Rare-Earth Borides Book
  • Author : Dmytro S. Inosov
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2021-10-25
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 912
  • ISBN Code: 1000345726
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Rare-earth borides have attracted continuous interest for more than half a century both from the point of view of fundamental condensed matter physics and for practical applications in various fields of engineering. They demonstrate a wealth of unusual electronic and magnetic properties that have been closely investigated in recent decades using advanced spectroscopies and state-of-the-art physical characterization methods. Authored by leading experts in the field, this book features a comprehensive collection of reviews offering a cutting-edge summary of the research on rare-earth borides from various viewpoints. It includes chapters on the growth and characterization of single-crystal and thin-film samples, detailed description of their lattice structure and dynamics, electronic and magnetic properties in the bulk and at the surface, low-temperature ordering phenomena, and theoretical and experimental description of the unusual spectroscopic properties from the perspective of modern x-ray and neutron scattering, Raman spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance. The book will appeal to anyone interested in the physics and chemistry of solids and low-temperature physics, especially to researchers and postgraduate students who study magnetic and electronic properties of rare-earth compounds.

Rare Earths Industry Book by Ismar Borges De Lima,Walter Leal Filho

Rare Earths Industry Book
  • Author : Ismar Borges De Lima,Walter Leal Filho
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2015-09-10
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 434
  • ISBN Code: 0128025689
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Rare Earths elements are composed of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table. Scandium and yttrium have similar properties, with mineral assemblages, and are therefore referred alike in the literature. Although abundant in the planet surface, the Rare Earths are not found in concentrated forms, thus making them economically valued as they are so challenging to obtain. Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic and Environmental Implications provides an interdisciplinary orientation to the topic of Rare Earths with a focus on technical, scientific, academic, economic, and environmental issues. Part I of book deals with the Rare Earths Reserves and Mining, Part II focuses on Rare Earths Processes and High-Tech Product Development, and Part III deals with Rare Earths Recycling Opportunities and Challenges. The chapters provide updated information and priceless analysis of the theme, and they seek to present the latest techniques, approaches, processes and technologies that can reduce the costs of compliance with environmental concerns in a way it is possible to anticipate and mitigate emerging problems. Discusses the influence of policy on Rare Earth Elements to help raise interest in developing strategies for management resource development and exploitation Global contributions will address solutions in countries that are high RE producers, including China, Brazil, Australia, and South China End of chapter critical summaries outline the technological, economic and environmental implications of rare earths reserves, exploration and market Provides a concise, but meaningful, geopolitical analysis of the current worldwide scenario and importance of rare earths exploration for governments, corporate groups, and local stakeholders

Rare-Earth Metal Recovery for Green Technologies Book by Rajesh Kumar Jyothi

Rare-Earth Metal Recovery for Green Technologies Book
  • Author : Rajesh Kumar Jyothi
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2020-03-25
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 166
  • ISBN Code: 3030381064
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This book examines the development, use, extraction, and recovery of rare earth metals. Rare earth elements (REEs) occupy a key role in daily life in industrial applications. They are one of the critical elements for energy and sustainable growth. REEs are utilized in many modern electrical and electronic devices such as smart phones, computers, LED lights etc. Recovery of the REEs from secondary resources represents a way to meet the growing demand for electronic devices. Because of their rarity, utility, and importance, the recovery, utilization and recycling of rare earth metals is of utmost importance. This book presents both current methods of processing rare earths from primary and secondary sources and new, green routes for their isolation and purification. The book also addresses their utilization, re-use, reduction, and recycling policies that exist globally. Applications in metallurgy, magnets, ceramics, electronics, and chemical, optical, and nuclear technologies are discussed.

Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements Book by Bruce R. Lipin,G.A. McKay

Geochemistry and Mineralogy of Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : Bruce R. Lipin,G.A. McKay
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release Date : 2018-12-17
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 358
  • ISBN Code: 1501509039
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Volume 21 of Reviews in Mineralogy treats a short course on the rare earth elements to about 80 participants in San Francisco, California, December 1-3, 1989, just prior to the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union. Contents: Cosmochemistry of the Rare Earth Elements: Condensation and Evaporation Processes Radiogenic Isotope Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements Partitioning of Rare Earth Elements between Major Silicate Minerals and Basaltic Melts An Approach to Trace Element Modeling Using a Simple Igneous System as an Example Rare Earth Elements in Upper Mantle Rocks Rare Earth Elements in Metamorphic Rocks Rare Earth Elements in Sedimentary Rocks: Influence of Provenance and Sedimentary Processes Aqueous Geochemistry of Rare Earth Elements Rare Earth Elements in Lunar Materials Compositional and Phase Relations among Rare Earth Element Minerals Economic Geology of Rare Earth Minerals Cathodoluminescence Emission Spectra of Rare Earth Element Activators in Minerals

Handbook of Rare Earth Elements Book by Alfred Golloch

Handbook of Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : Alfred Golloch
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release Date : 2017-04-24
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 418
  • ISBN Code: 3110391252
  • GET BOOK

Summary: The Handbook of Rare Earth Elements focuses on the essential role of modern instrumental analytics in the recycling, purification and analysis of rare earth elements. Due to their numerous applications, e.g. in novel magnetic materials for computer hardware, mobile phones and displays, rare earth elements have become a strategic and valuable resource. The detailed knowledge of rare earth element contents at every step of their life cycle is of great importance. This reference work was compiled with contribution from an international team of expert authors from Academia and Industry to presend a comprehensive discussion on the state-of-the-art of rare earth element analysis for industrial and scientific purposes, recycling processes and purification of REEs from various sources. Written with Analytical Chemists, Inorganic Chemists, Spectroscopists as well as Industry Practitioners in mind, the Handbook of Rare Earth Elements is an indispensable reference for everyone working with rare earth elements.

Optical Spectra of Transparent Rare Earth Compounds Book by S. Hufner

Optical Spectra of Transparent Rare Earth Compounds Book
  • Author : S. Hufner
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2012-12-02
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN Code: 0323158986
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Optical Spectra of Transparent Rare Earth Compounds investigates the optical spectra of transparent rare earth (RE) compounds such as europium chalcogenides. Emphasis is placed on the underlying physics in selected examples, and theoretical results are usually presented without proof in a form that allows their application to the interpretation of experimental data. This book is comprised of 11 chapters and begins with an overview of the spectra of RE ions in ionic crystals, paying particular attention to the sharpness of many lines in the absorption and emission spectra. How these very narrow lines arise, what interactions determine their energy, and how they can be used to investigate particular properties of the solid state are explained in detail. Subsequent chapters explore the energy structure of RE free ions in solids; trivalent RE ions in a static crystal field and in a phonon field; magnetic interactions and hyperfine interactions; and Jahn-Teller systems. The absorption spectra of europium chalcogenides are also considered, along with REs in glasses and RE lasers. This monograph is written primarily for solid state physicists and those who need an overall view of the basic features of rare earth spectra in transparent solids, such as new workers.

Rare Earth Intermetallics Book by W.E. Wallace

Rare Earth Intermetallics Book
  • Author : W.E. Wallace
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2012-12-02
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 278
  • ISBN Code: 032315803X
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Rare Earth Intermetallics provides an account of the magnetic characteristics of rare earth intermetallics. This book discusses bulk magnetic characteristics, such as temperature dependence of susceptibility, saturation magnetization, nature of the cooperative magnetic phase, low temperature specific heats, and related thermal properties. Other topics include the magnetic interactions, crystal field interaction by the operator equivalent method, and rare earth-nontransition metal systems. The miscellaneous IVA compounds, rare earth substitution, variation in the iron moment, and compounds with 4d and 5d transition metals are also elaborated in this text. This publication is recommended for students and researchers interested in rare earth intermetallics.

Rare Earth Book by Paul Mason

Rare Earth Book
  • Author : Paul Mason
  • Publisher : OR Books
  • Release Date : 2012-01-19
  • Category: Fiction
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN Code: 1935928678
  • GET BOOK

Summary: A washed up TV reporter stumbles onto a corruption scandal in Western China. Pursued through the desert by a psychotic spin-doctor and a world-weary cop, he discovers the real China: illegal metal mines, a fashion-crazed gang of girl bikers, a whole commune of Tiananmen Square survivors and the up-market sleaze-joints of Beijing. En route, he clashes with a stellar cast of people-traffickers, prostitutes and TV execs. But then the unquiet dead begin to intervene: ghosts from his own past and the past of Chinese Communism; the 'spirits that hover three feet above our heads' of Chinese folklore.

Rare Earth Nanotechnology Book by Timothy Tan Thatt Yang

Rare Earth Nanotechnology Book
  • Author : Timothy Tan Thatt Yang
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2012-06-20
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 262
  • ISBN Code: 9814364207
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This book provides in-depth aspects of nanotechnology of rare earth (RE) materials. It starts with a review on the physical and chemical properties of RE elements, followed by a discussion on various strategies in fabricating nanosized RE materials. It describes various techniques in derivatizing surface molecules onto nanosized RE materials. A con

Rare-earth element biochemistry: Methanol dehydrogenases and lanthanide biology Book by

Rare-earth element biochemistry: Methanol dehydrogenases and lanthanide biology Book
  • Author :
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2021-04-16
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 276
  • ISBN Code: 0128238577
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Methods in Enzymology, Volume 650 continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. Chapters in this new release include Biophysical methods to study lanthanide-protein interactions, Genetically encoded sensors to study lanthanide biology, Spectrophotometric methods to determine the stability constants of lanthanide-macromolecule complexes, Lanthanide-based probes for amino acid modifications, In vitro selection and application of lanthanide-dependent DNAzymes, LRET biosensors for imaging protein interactions in living cells, Synthetic Modeling of the Structure and Function of the Lanthanide-Dependent, MDH Cofactor, EPR spectroscopy of lanthanides, Macromolecular crystallography for f-element complex characterization, and much more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Methods in Enzymology series

Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths Book by Dezhi Qi

Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths Book
  • Author : Dezhi Qi
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2018-05-15
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 804
  • ISBN Code: 0128139218
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earths: Extraction and Separation provides the basic knowledge for rare earth extraction and separation, including flow sheet selection criteria and related technology. The book includes the latest research findings on all rare earth separation processes, methods of controlling operation costs, and strategies that help lower wastewater and waste solid discharge. It discusses many real process parameters and actual situations in rare earth separation plants, also examining the basic principles, technologies, process parameters and advances and achievements in the area of rare earth extraction and separation. In addition, the book covers extraction separation theory as developed by Professor Guanxian Xu and Professor Chunhua Yan and the creative use of a computational simulation program to replace the bench scale and pilot plant tests and directly design rare earth extraction separation processes. Outlines the theory of solvent extraction and separation of rare earths (REs) Provides the necessary tools for a REs separation plant design Includes a unique simulation program for the calculation of all process parameters Includes Chinese nomenclature that is useful for identifying the various processes, also comparing it to the global literature

Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare Earth Metals Book by L.L. Rokhlin

Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare Earth Metals Book
  • Author : L.L. Rokhlin
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2014-04-21
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN Code: 1482265168
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Magnesium-based alloys containing rare-earth metals are important structural materials, as they combine low density with high-strength properties. This makes them particularly attractive for industry, especially in cases where the low weight of constructions is critical, as in aircraft and space apparatus construction. One of the remarkable features of alloys is the significant difference made by individual rare-earth metals when they are added to magnesium. This second edition of Magnesium Alloys Containing Rare-Earth Metals: Structure and Properties describes the constitution and properties of magnesium-based alloys containing rare-earth metals. It presents the dependence of their characteristics on their atomic number and place in the periodic table and discusses new ideas for rare-earth metals as alloying additives to magnesium. This volume consists mainly of research from Russian scientists but also contains western literature making it a valuable reference tool for students, researchers and professionals in materials science and metallurgy.

Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Materials Book by Volkmar Dierolf,Ian Ferguson,John M Zavada

Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Materials Book
  • Author : Volkmar Dierolf,Ian Ferguson,John M Zavada
  • Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
  • Release Date : 2016-01-23
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 470
  • ISBN Code: 008100060X
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Rare Earth and Transition Metal Doping of Semiconductor Material explores traditional semiconductor devices that are based on control of the electron’s electric charge. This book looks at the semiconductor materials used for spintronics applications, in particular focusing on wide band-gap semiconductors doped with transition metals and rare earths. These materials are of particular commercial interest because their spin can be controlled at room temperature, a clear opposition to the most previous research on Gallium Arsenide, which allowed for control of spins at supercold temperatures. Part One of the book explains the theory of magnetism in semiconductors, while Part Two covers the growth of semiconductors for spintronics. Finally, Part Three looks at the characterization and properties of semiconductors for spintronics, with Part Four exploring the devices and the future direction of spintronics. Examines materials which are of commercial interest for producing smaller, faster, and more power-efficient computers and other devices Analyzes the theory behind magnetism in semiconductors and the growth of semiconductors for spintronics Details the properties of semiconductors for spintronics

Separation Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earth Elements Book by Jack Zhang,Baodong Zhao,Bryan Schreiner

Separation Hydrometallurgy of Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : Jack Zhang,Baodong Zhao,Bryan Schreiner
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2016-02-10
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 259
  • ISBN Code: 3319282352
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This book describes in a comprehensive manner the technical aspects of separation of rare earth elements into individual elements for industrial and commercial use. The authors include details on and differentiate among the effective separation of rare earth elements for various parts of the world. They introduce new applications of separation of rare earth elements from concentrates of diverse ore types.

China's Virtual Monopoly of Rare Earth Elements Book by Roland Howanietz

China's Virtual Monopoly of Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : Roland Howanietz
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2018-06-12
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 178
  • ISBN Code: 1351109901
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Rare Earth Elements are a group of 17 metals which have a central role in modern industry, increasingly used in the fields of green technologies, high technological consumer goods, industrial and medical appliances and modern weapons systems. Although deposits of Rare Earths are globally dispersed, over 90% of global demand has been provided by Chinese mines since the late 1990s, leading to a situation where China has a virtual monopoly. This book surveys the Rare Earths mining industry, discusses the extent to which Rare Earths really are scarce elsewhere in the world and assesses the economics of production, considering arguments for the rationing of supply, for higher pricing and for a total export embargo. This actually occurred in 2010, demonstrating the vulnerability of the rest of the world to China’s control of these increasingly vital resources.

Rare Earth Chemistry Book by Rainer Pöttgen,Thomas Jüstel,Cristian A. Strassert

Rare Earth Chemistry Book
  • Author : Rainer Pöttgen,Thomas Jüstel,Cristian A. Strassert
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release Date : 2020-10-26
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 669
  • ISBN Code: 3110653729
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This work introduces into the chemistry, materials science and technology of Rare Earth Elements. The chapters by experienced lecturers describe comprehensively the recent studies of their characteristics, properties and applications in functional materials. Due to the broad range of covered topics as hydrogen storage materials, LEDs or permanent magnets this work gives an up-to-date presentation of this fascinating research.

The Political Economy of Rare Earth Elements Book by Ryan David Kiggins

The Political Economy of Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : Ryan David Kiggins
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-07-28
  • Category: Political Science
  • Pages : 228
  • ISBN Code: 1137364246
  • GET BOOK

Summary: The contributors argue that rare earths are essential to the information technology revolution on which humans have come to depend for communication, commerce, and, increasingly, engage in conflict. They demonstrate that rare earths are a strategic commodity over which political actors will and do struggle for control.

The Rare Earth Elements Book by J.H.L. Voncken

The Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : J.H.L. Voncken
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2015-12-24
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 127
  • ISBN Code: 3319268090
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This book deals with the rare earth elements (REE), which are a series of 17 transition metals: scandium, yttrium and the lanthanide series of elements (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium). They are relatively unknown to the wider public, despite their numerous applications and their critical role in many high-tech applications, such as high-temperature superconductors, phosphors (for energy-saving lamps, flat-screen monitors and flat-screen televisions), rechargeable batteries (household and automotive), very strong permanent magnets (used for instance in wind turbines and hard-disk drives), or even in a medical MRI application. This book describes the history of their discovery, the major REE ore minerals and the major ore deposits that are presently being exploited (or are planned to be exploited in the very near future), the physical and chemical properties of REEs, the mineral processing of REE concentrates and their extractive metallurgy, the applications of these elements, their economic aspects and the influential economical role of China, and finally the recycling of the REE, which is an emerging field.

Binary Rare Earth Oxides Book by G. Adachi,Nobuhito Imanaka,Z.C. Kang

Binary Rare Earth Oxides Book
  • Author : G. Adachi,Nobuhito Imanaka,Z.C. Kang
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2006-07-10
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 257
  • ISBN Code: 1402025696
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Binary Rare Earth Oxides is the first book in the field of rare earth oxides that provides coverage from the basic science through to recent advances. This book introduces the unique characteristics of the binary rare earth oxides with their chemistry, physics and applications. It provides a comprehensive review of all the characteristics of rare earth oxides, essential for scientists and engineers involved with rare earths, oxides, inorganic materials, ceramics, and structures. The binary rare earth oxides bring us a variety of interesting characteristics. Understanding their fundamental mechanisms builds a bridge between solid-state chemistry and materials science. The book begins with a brief introduction to binary rare earth oxides, their physical and chemical stabilities, polymorphism, crystal structures and phase transformation and the association with current applications. The book goes on to present the band structure of the oxides using several quantum chemical calculations, which belong to a newly developed area in the binary rare earth oxides. Central to this chapter are the characterizations of electrical, magnetic and optical properties, as well as details of single crystal growth and particle preparation methods that have progressed in recent years. Later chapters concentrate on thermo-chemical properties and trace determination techniques. The final chapter contains a variety of useful applications in various fields such as phosphors, glass abrasives, automotive catalysts, fuel cells, solid electrolytes, sunscreens, iron steels, and biological materials. This book is an invaluable resource for materials scientists and solid-state physicists and chemists with an interest in rare earth oxides, as well as advanced students and graduates who require an approach to familiarize them with this field. This book provides guidance through a comprehensive review of all the characteristics of binary rare earth oxides.

Photofunctional Rare Earth Hybrid Materials Book by Bing Yan

Photofunctional Rare Earth Hybrid Materials Book
  • Author : Bing Yan
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-08-28
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : 261
  • ISBN Code: 9811029571
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This book presents the main research advances in the field of photofunctional rare earth hybrid materials. The first chapter discusses the fundamental principles, ranging from rare earth, rare earth luminescence, luminescent rare earth compounds and photofunctional rare earth hybrid materials. The main body of the book consists of six chapters exploring different kinds of photofunctional hybrid materials, such as hybrids based on organically modified silica; organically modified mesoporous silica; functionalized microporous zeolite and metal-organic frameworks; polymer or polymer/silica composite; and multi-component assembly of hybrids. It also includes a chapter introducing the photofunctional application of these hybrid materials. It is a valuable resource for a wide readership in various fields of rare earth chemistry, chemical science and materials science.

Rare Earth Materials Book by A.R. Jha

Rare Earth Materials Book
  • Author : A.R. Jha
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2014-06-17
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 371
  • ISBN Code: 1466564032
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Recent studies indicate that China accounts for about 96 percent of the world’s supply of rare earth materials (REMs). With REMs becoming increasingly important for a growing number of high-tech applications, appropriate action must be taken to mitigate the effects of a shortage of critical REMs in defense systems and components. Bringing together information previously available only from disparate journal articles and databases, Rare Earth Materials: Properties and Applications describes the unique characteristics and applications of 17 REMs. It defines their chemical, electrical, thermal, and optical characteristics. Maintaining a focus on physical and chemical properties, it addresses the history and critical issues pertaining to mining and processing of REMs. In this book, Dr. A.R. Jha continues his distinguished track record of distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework that can be extended to practical applications across commercial and industrial frameworks. He summarizes the chemical, optical, electrical, thermal, magnetic, and spectroscopic properties of REMs best suited for next-generation commercial and military systems or equipment. Coverage includes extraction, recycling, refinement, visual inspection, identification of spectroscopic parameters, quality control, element separation based on specific application, pricing control, and environmental / geo-political considerations. Potential applications are identified with an emphasis on scientific instruments, nuclear resonance imaging equipment, MRI systems, magnetic couplers for uranium enrichment equipment, battery-electrodes, electric motors, electric generators, underwater sensors, and commercial and military sensors. The book describes unique applications of rare earth magnets in all-electric and hybrid electric cars and microwave components. It also considers the use of rare earth magnets in commercial and military systems where weight and size are the critical design requirements. Suitable for both students and design engineers involved in the development of high-technology components or systems, the book concludes by summarizing future applications in electro-optic systems and components, including infrared lasers, diode-pumped solid-state lasers operating at room temperatures, and other sophisticated military and commercial test equipment

Handbook on Rare Earth Metals and Alloys (Properties, Extraction, Preparation and Applications) Book by NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers

Handbook on Rare Earth Metals and Alloys (Properties, Extraction, Preparation and Applications) Book
  • Author : NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
  • Publisher : ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
  • Release Date : 2009-04-01
  • Category:
  • Pages : 688
  • ISBN Code: 8178331209
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Rare earths are essential constituents of more than 100 mineral species and present in many more through substitution. They have a marked geochemical affinity for calcium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, fluoride, phosphate and carbonate ions. Industrially important minerals, which are utilized at present for rare earths production, are essentially three, namely monazite, bastnasite and xenotime. In modern time techniques for exploration of rare earths and yttrium minerals include geologic identification of environments of deposition and surface as well as airborne reconnaissance with magnetometric and radiometric equipment. There are numerous applications of rare earths such as in glass making industry, cracking catalysts, electronic and optoelectronic devices, medical technology, nuclear technology, agriculture, plastic industry etc. Lot of metals and alloys called rare earth are lying in the earth which required to be processed. Some of the important elements extracted from rare earths are uranium, lithium, beryllium, selenium, platinum metals, tantalum, silicon, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, cadmium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium etc. There are different methods involved in production of metals and non metals from rare earths for example; separation, primary crushing, secondary crushing, wet grinding, dry grinding etc. The rare earths are silver, silverymwhite, or gray metals; they have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air, have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties this makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals. Rare earths are found with non metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. At present all the rare earth resources in India are in the form of placer monazite deposits, which also carry other industrially important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite and garnet. Some of the fundamentals of the book are commercially important rare earth minerals, exploration for rare earth resources, rare earth resources of the world, some rare earth minerals and their approximate compositions, rare earths in cracking catalysts, rare earth based phosphors, interdependence of applications and production of rare earths, uranium alloys, conversion of ores to lithium chemicals, characterization and analysis of very pure silicon, derivation of molybdenum metal, electoplating and chromizing, electrolytic production of titanium, heat treatment of titanium alloys, tensile properties of alloys etc. The book covers occurrence of rare earth, resources of the world, production of lithium metals, compounds derived from the metals, chemical properties of beryllium, uses of selenium, derivation of molybdenum metals, ore concentration and treatment and many more. This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.

New Frontiers in Rare Earth Science and Applications Book by Xu Guangxian,Xiao Jimei

New Frontiers in Rare Earth Science and Applications Book
  • Author : Xu Guangxian,Xiao Jimei
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2013-10-22
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 833
  • ISBN Code: 1483259633
  • GET BOOK

Summary: New Frontiers in Rare Earth Science and Applications, Volume II documents the proceedings of the International Conference on Rare Earth Development and Applications held in Beijing on September 10-14, 1985. This compilation discusses quenching and sensitization of rare earth luminescence, magnetic properties of rare earth intermetallics, and microcapsulated rare earth-nickel hydride-forming materials. The effect of rare earth on the quality and properties of hot-rolled steel strips and role of yttrium in heavy section spheroidal graphite cast iron are also elaborated. This book likewise covers the application of scandium oxide in an electron emission material and study on the effect of rare earth elements on the yield of wheat. This publication is beneficial to researchers and scientists conducting work in the field of earth science.

Rare Earth Elements in Human and Environmental Health Book by Giovanni Pagano

Rare Earth Elements in Human and Environmental Health Book
  • Author : Giovanni Pagano
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2016-12-01
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 292
  • ISBN Code: 1315341069
  • GET BOOK

Summary: This book presents the multifaceted aspects of rare earth elements (REEs), focusing on both their potential benefits and adverse health effects. The adverse impacts of REEs on human and environmental health raise a growing concern not only in the scientific community but also among a number of stakeholders, potentially including students, media workers, and decision makers. The recognized and potential benefits arising from REE-related technological applications may envisage their further advantages. A limited number of books have been devoted so far to REEs, and they mainly focus on REE-related chemistry, mineralogy, economy, and developing technologies for these elements. This book presents recent research achievements in REE-associated health effects, which have been mostly confined to journal reports on individual laboratory studies so far. It is an updated and balanced approach to REE research and technology. It provides novel yet established information as stated in the title "At the Crossroads between Toxicity and Safety," with particular emphasis on the hormesis phenomenon.

Deployment of Rare Earth Materials in Microware Devices, RF Transmitters, and Laser Systems Book by A. R. Jha, Ph.D.

Deployment of Rare Earth Materials in Microware Devices, RF Transmitters, and Laser Systems Book
  • Author : A. R. Jha, Ph.D.
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2019-06-03
  • Category: Computers
  • Pages : 198
  • ISBN Code: 1351674870
  • GET BOOK

Summary: Deployment of Rare Earth Materials in Microware Devices, RF Transmitters, and Laser Systems describes the deployment of rare earth materials that offer significant improvement in the RF performance, reliability, weight, and size of microwave devices, RF transmitters, and laser systems. RF components, microware transmitters, laser systems, and special timing devices are described, with an emphasis on improvement in the performance parameters.

The Structure of Rare-Earth Metal Surfaces Book by S D Barrett,S S Dhesi

The Structure of Rare-Earth Metal Surfaces Book
  • Author : S D Barrett,S S Dhesi
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2001-08-30
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 260
  • ISBN Code: 1783262028
  • GET BOOK

Summary: The Structure of Rare-Earth Metal Surfaces introduces the concepts of surface crystallography and surface-structure determination, outlines the principles of the most widely used experimental techniques and theoretical simulations, and reviews their application to the surfaces of rare-earth metals. In particular, the results of quantitative low-energy electron-diffraction experiments and multiple-scattering calculations are covered in some depth. The book is aimed at science graduates with an interest in surface crystallography. Contents:Introduction to the Rare EarthsThe Basics of Surface StructureSurface Structure TechniquesCrystal Growth and Surface PreparationRare-Earth Surface ScienceQuantitative Low-Energy Electron DiffractionQuantitative LEED ResultsSummary — Past, Present and Future Readership: Researchers in surface and interface science, crystallography, condensed matter physics and computational physics. Keywords:Rare-Earth Metal;Surface Crystallography;Surface Structure;Electron-Diffraction Experiment;Multiple-Scattering CalculationReviews:“The first chapter provides an excellent overview to the rare-earths … The book is aimed at graduate students with an interest in crystallography, but has minimized the rigorous mathematical treatment favored by physicists.”RIC News

Transition Metal and Rare Earth Compounds Book by Hartmut Yersin

Transition Metal and Rare Earth Compounds Book
  • Author : Hartmut Yersin
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2003-07-01
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 186
  • ISBN Code: 3540444742
  • GET BOOK

Summary: There exists a large literature on the spectroscopic properties of copper(II) com- 9 pounds. This is due to the simplicity of the d electron configuration, the wide variety of stereochemistries that copper(II) compounds can adopt, and the f- xional geometric behavior that they sometimes exhibit [1]. The electronic and geometric properties of a molecule are inexorably linked and this is especially true with six-coordinate copper(II) compounds which are subject to a Jahn-T- ler effect.However,the spectral-structural correlations that are sometimes d- wn must often be viewed with caution as the information contained in a typical solution UV-Vis absorption spectrum of a copper(II) compound is limited. Meaningful spectral-structural correlations can be obtained in a related series of compounds where detailed spectroscopic data is available. In the fol- 4– lowing sections two such series are examined; the six-coordinate CuF and 6 2+ Cu(H O) ions doped as impurities in single crystal hosts.Using low tempera- 2 6 ture polarized optical spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance, a very detailed picture can be drawn about the geometry of these ions in both their ground and excited electronic states. We then compare the spectrosco- cally determined structural data with that obtained from X-ray diffraction or EXAFS measurements.

Spectroscopy of Crystals Containing Rare Earth Ions Book by A.A. Kaplyanskii,R.M. McFarlane

Spectroscopy of Crystals Containing Rare Earth Ions Book
  • Author : A.A. Kaplyanskii,R.M. McFarlane
  • Publisher : Elsevier
  • Release Date : 2012-12-02
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 754
  • ISBN Code: 0444598278
  • GET BOOK

Summary: ``Spectroscopy of Crystals Containing Rare Earth Ions'' contains chapters on some key problems selected from a broad range of spectroscopic studies of RE-activated solids including both crystalline and glassy materials. Progress in crystal field theory is surveyed, an area which is basic to our understanding of the energy levels. The treatment of dynamical properties includes studies of coherence phenomena in isolated ions, energy transfer between ions and co-operative phenomena associated with ion-ion and ion-lattice interactions. In addition, the role of electron spins and nuclear spins is studied by light scattering and double resonance techniques. The presence of inhomogeneous broadening of spectral lines is observed and studied in many contexts, leading to new insights into general problems of the disordered state. Considerable attention is devoted to describing new experimental techniques whose development is of prime importance for progress in the spectroscopy of RE-activated solids. Many of these rely on the development and application of tunable lasers. At the moment this is a very active field of spectroscopy with more exciting developments likely to occur in the future.

Sc, Y, La-Lu Rare Earth Elements Book by Wolfgang Töpper,Bärbel Sarbas

Sc, Y, La-Lu Rare Earth Elements Book
  • Author : Wolfgang Töpper,Bärbel Sarbas
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-11-11
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 207
  • ISBN Code: 3662078333
  • GET BOOK

Summary: The present volume "Rare Earth Elements" A 6b deseribes in its first part the origin, mode of oeeurrenee, and behavior of Y and/or RE elements in the hydrosphere and atmos phere. Separately for marine and non-marine environments (surfaee, subsurfaee, mineral, and thermal waters), the behavior of RE (ineluding Y) in the hydrosphere eomprises espeeially the relationship between eontentleomposition and the ehemistry of water, and the processes aeting during migration, removal, and preeipitation are outlined; the influenee of biologieal material is mentioned. Behavior of RE in the atmosphere involves mainly transport, regional differenees, and temporal variations as weil as removal by preeipitation; the anthropogenie influenee is only outlined. The seeond part of this volume treats, partly in a more summary manner, the eosmo and geoehemieal eyeles and the balance of Y and/or RE elements. The relationship between geodynamie position and type of magmatism, as weil as the geoehemieal variations in the geospheres, especially mantle and erust of the earth, are deseribed in greater detail.