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The Book of Enoch Book by

The Book of Enoch Book
  • Author :
  • Publisher : FilRougeViceversa
  • Release Date : 2021-08-27
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 150
  • ISBN Code: 3985940533
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Summary: As the Book of Enoch is, in some respects, the most notable extant apocalyptic work outside the canonical Scriptures, it will not be inappropriate to offer a few remarks here on the Apocalyptic Literature generally. In writing about the books which belong to this literature, Prof. Burkitt says very pointedly that "they are the most characteristic survival of what I will venture to call, with all its narrowness and its incoherence, the heroic age of Jewish history, the age when the nation attempted to realize in action the part of the peculiar people of God. It ended in catastrophe, but the nation left two successors, the Christian Church and the Rabbinical Schools, each of which carried on some of the old national aims. And of the two it was the Christian Church that was most faithful to the ideas enshrined in the Apocalypses, and it did consider itself, not without some reason, the fulfilment of those ideas. What is wanted, therefore, in studying the Apocalypses is, above all, sympathy with the ideas that underlie them, and especially with the belief in the New Age. And those who believe that in Christianity a new Era really did dawn for us ought, I think, to have that sympathy. . . . We study the Apocalypses to learn how our spiritual ancestors hoped again that God would make all right in the end; and that we, their children, are here today studying them is an indication that their hope was not wholly unfounded."

Traditions of the Bible Book by James L. KUGEL,James L Kugel

Traditions of the Bible Book
  • Author : James L. KUGEL,James L Kugel
  • Publisher : Harvard University Press
  • Release Date : 2009-06-30
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 1078
  • ISBN Code: 0674039769
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Summary: James Kugel's The Bible As It Was (1997) has been welcomed with universal praise. Here now is the full scholarly edition of this wonderfully rich and illuminating work, expanding the author's findings into an incomparable reference work. Focusing on two dozen core stories in the Pentateuch--from the Creation and Tree of Knowledge through the Exodus from Egypt and journey to the Promised Land--James Kugel shows us how the earliest interpreters of the scriptures radically transformed the Bible and made it into the book that has come down to us today. Kugel explains how and why the writers of this formative age of interpretation--roughly 200 B.C.E. to 150 C.E.--assumed such a significant role. Mining their writings--including the Dead Sea Scrolls, works of Philo and Josephus and letters of the Apostle Paul, and writings of the Apostolic Fathers and the rabbinic Sages--he quotes for us the seminal passages that uncover this crucial interpretive process. For this full-scale reference work Kugel has added a substantial treasury of sources and passages for each of the 24 Bible stories. It will serve as a unique guide and sourcebook for biblical interpretation.

Temple & Contemplation Book by Corbin

Temple & Contemplation Book
  • Author : Corbin
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2013-10-28
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN Code: 1136142428
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Summary: First published in 1986. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity, Volume 4 Book by James C. VanderKam,William Adler

The Jewish Apocalyptic Heritage in Early Christianity, Volume 4 Book
  • Author : James C. VanderKam,William Adler
  • Publisher : Fortress Press
  • Release Date : 1996-12-07
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 286
  • ISBN Code: 9781451403091
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Summary: The question of apocalyptic influence on Jesus and early Christianity is again strongly contested. The issues connected with this question include terminology, genre, historical reconstruction, sectarian self-definition, and many others. This book provides a fresh assessment of the nature and significance of early Christian appropriation of Jewish apocalyptic material.

The Metaphorical Use of Language in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature Book by Markus Witte,Sven Behnke

The Metaphorical Use of Language in Deuterocanonical and Cognate Literature Book
  • Author : Markus Witte,Sven Behnke
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release Date : 2014-12-17
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 565
  • ISBN Code: 3110373998
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Summary: Metaphors are a vital linguistic component of religious speech and serve as a cultural indicator of how groups understand themselves and the world. The essays compiled in this volume analyze the use, function, and structure of metaphors in Jewish writings from the Hellenistic-Roman period (including the works of Philo and the texts of Qumran), as well as in apocryphal early Christian texts and inscriptions.

The Revelation of Bethlehem Book by Levi Khamor

The Revelation of Bethlehem Book
  • Author : Levi Khamor
  • Publisher : Trafford Publishing
  • Release Date : 2011-11-18
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 68
  • ISBN Code: 1466900784
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Summary: What is it that is revealed in the Revelation of Bethlehem? This fascinating book discusses the meaning of the name "Bethlehem" and explains why the Messiah was born in this little town. The format combines short meditations on the Birth of Christ with detailed explanations of certain points, which are gathered together as footnotes in sections called The Grain Bins. The information brought forth in this work includes such accounts as: 1. The reason why the village of Ephrathah had its name changed to Bethlehem. 2. The reason why Caleb chose the city of Hebron as hi portion, and the relationship between the city of Bethlehem and the Calebites: the "dog" clan offshoot of the tribe of Judah. 3. The possible Calebite ancestry of King David. 4. The native origins of the shepherds. 5. The reason why Adam was brought into the Garden of Eden and the two stages of mankind. 6. The meaning of suffering. 7. The hidden reason behind the flight; to Egypt and the return to the Holy Land. The author is a Scripture scholar who brings a wealth of material to light in this study, helping the reader to discover some interesting details about the birth of Christ which will make the infancy narratives even more meaningful.

The Rape of Eve Book by Celene Lillie

The Rape of Eve Book
  • Author : Celene Lillie
  • Publisher : Fortress Press
  • Release Date : 2017-01-01
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN Code: 1506414370
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Summary: Sex, violence, power, and redemption. In recent decades, scholars of New Testament and early Christian traditions have given new attention to the relationships between gender and imperial power in the Roman world. In this surprising work, Celene Lillie examines core passages from three Gnostic texts from Nag Hammadi, On the Origin of the World, The Reality of the Rulers, and the Secret Revelation of John, in which Eve is portrayed as having been humiliated by the cosmic powers, yet experiencing restoration. Lillie compares that pattern with Gnostic savior motifs concerning Jesus and Seth, then sets it in the broader context of Roman cosmogonic myths at play in imperial ideology. The Nag Hammadi texts, she argues, offer us a window into symbolic forms of Christian resistance to imperial ideology. This groundbreaking study highlights the importance of the Nag Hammadi writings for our fuller appreciation of the currents of Christian response to the Roman Empire and the culture of rape pervasive within it.

From Qumran to the Synagogues Book by Géza G. Xeravits

From Qumran to the Synagogues Book
  • Author : Géza G. Xeravits
  • Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
  • Release Date : 2019-03-18
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 306
  • ISBN Code: 3110615614
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Summary: This volume collects papers written during the past two decades that explore various aspects of late Second Temple period Jewish literature and the figurative art of the Late Antique synagogues. Most of the papers have a special emphasis on the reinterpretation of biblical figures in early Judaism or demonstrate how various biblical traditions converged into early Jewish theologies. The structure of the volume reflects the main directions of the author’s scholarly interest, examining the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha, and Late Antique synagogues. The book is edited for the interest of scholars of Second Temple Judaism, biblical interpretation, synagogue studies and the effective history of Scripture.

This World and the World to Come Book by Daniel M. Gurtner

This World and the World to Come Book
  • Author : Daniel M. Gurtner
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release Date : 2011-10-27
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 384
  • ISBN Code: 0567026094
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Summary: This is a distinguished list of contributors consider the issue of 'soteriology' in Second Temple literature . Did authors of Second Temple texts concern themselves with 'salvation'? If so, on what terms? What does one need 'salvation' from? And are the parameters of who is included in or excluded from 'salvation' defined? Gurtner's vision in compiling this collection is to collect contributions on a single topic as it is addressed in individual books from the Second Temple period. Working from a sound methodological basis the contributors assess the theme in different books, acknowledging that the approaches in each text are different, depending on issues of genre and provenance. This allows an acute comparison of how this topic is present across a myriad of Second Temple Jewish texts. Throughout the course of the work the notion of 'soteriology' is very broadly conceived. Whilst acknowledging the obviously Christian connotation of the term 'soteriology' the volume similarly acknowledges the usefulness of the term as an heuristic category for careful analysis. The Library of Second Temple Studies is a premier book series that offers cutting-edge work for a readership of scholars, teachers, postgraduate students and advanced undergraduates in the field of Second Temple studies. All the many and diverse aspects of Second Temple study are represented and promoted, including innovative work from historical perspectives, studies using social-scientific and literary theory, and developing theological, cultural and contextual approaches.

A New Chronology for Old Testament Times Book by Jan van Tuyl

A New Chronology for Old Testament Times Book
  • Author : Jan van Tuyl
  • Publisher : Author House
  • Release Date : 2012-10-31
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 564
  • ISBN Code: 9781477219447
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Summary: This book brings solutions to a very great list of hitherto unsolved chronological and synchronisation problems. The reason why those solutions could be found lies in the extensive research the author made in old and often rare texts instead of limiting himself to the near exclusive source of the Bible. Ample use has been made of information that is available in works like the Books of Enoch, The Apocrypha, The Legends of the Jews, The Seder Olam, the Book of Jasher and many more, as well as in the texts from known historians like Herodotus and the famous Jewish historian and priest Flavius Josephus Just a few of the many special findings are: • The real reason why Joseph was so popular with the Pharaoh. • Sarah was not Abraham’s (half)-sister. • Moses was uncircumcised and even forbade the ritual for 40 years. • Terah was not 70 years old when he begat Abraham. • The exact period of the Judges: when they started and when they ended. • A solution for the verse of the “about 450 years” of Paul’s speech. • Why did the Lord God give form and then blew life into Adam? • Eve was not made out of Adam’s rib but from another body part • A solution to the “impossible synchronism” of Judah and his sons. • Enoch made not one but 4 trips to Heaven. • The definitive answer: why did King Josiah attack Necho II? • Why did King Ahab not fight at Qarqar? And many more. The book has a unique style. It has nothing of the “study book” , difficult to understand texts. The subject is serious, well researched, and treated with respect. But that does not mean that it cannot be presented at a fast moving pace, in easy to read style with here and there even a bit of humour. The purpose of the book is to prove that the promise that the Lord God made to Adam was kept. It held that there would be exactly 5500 years between the arrival of Adam in this world and the arrival of Christ. Every person who was of importance in that timespan has been visited. For every single one there are his years of birth and death or the years of his rule. Every person has a short story about some important part of his life, his actions or the influence he had on the history of the Hebrew people that lived in that period.

Icons of Space Book by Jelena Bogdanović

Icons of Space Book
  • Author : Jelena Bogdanović
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2021-07-12
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 464
  • ISBN Code: 1000410862
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Summary: Icons of Space: Advances in Hierotopy brings together important scholars of Byzantine religion, art, and architecture, to honour the work of renowned art historian Alexei Lidov. As well as his numerous publications, Lidov is well known for developing the concept of hierotopy, an innovative approach for studying the creation of sacred spaces. Hierotopy and the related concepts of ‘spatial icons’ and ‘image-paradigms’ emphasize fundamental questions about icons, including what defines them as structures, spaces, and experiences. Chapters in this volume engage with the overarching theme of icons of space by employing, contrasting, and complementing methods of hierotopy with more traditional approaches such as iconography. Examinations of icons have traditionally been positioned within strictly historical, theological, socio-economic, political, and art history domains, but this volume poses epistemological questions about the creation of sacred spaces that are instead inclusive of multi-layered iconic ideas and the lived experiences of the creators and beholders of such spaces. This book contributes to image theory and theories of architecture and sacred space. Simultaneously, it moves beyond colonial studies that predominantly focus on questions of religion and politics as expressions of privileged knowledge and power. This book will appeal to scholars and students of Byzantine history, as well as those interested in hierotopy and art history.

Histories of the Hidden God Book by April D DeConick,Grant Adamson

Histories of the Hidden God Book
  • Author : April D DeConick,Grant Adamson
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2016-04-08
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN Code: 1134936060
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Summary: In Western religious traditions, God is conventionally conceived as a humanlike creator, lawgiver, and king, a being both accessible and actively present in history. Yet there is a concurrent and strong tradition of a God who actively hides. The two traditions have led to a tension between a God who is simultaneously accessible to humanity and yet inaccessible, a God who is both immanent and transcendent, present and absent. Western Gnostic, esoteric, and mystical thinking capitalizes on the hidden and hiding God. He becomes the hallmark of the mystics, Gnostics, sages, and artists who attempt to make accessible to humans the God who is secreted away. 'Histories of the Hidden God' explores this tradition from antiquity to today. The essays focus on three essential themes: the concealment of the hidden God; the human quest for the hidden God, and revelations of the hidden God.

Creation, Nature and Hope in 4 Ezra Book by Jonathan A. Moo

Creation, Nature and Hope in 4 Ezra Book
  • Author : Jonathan A. Moo
  • Publisher : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
  • Release Date : 2011-05-18
  • Category: Fiction
  • Pages : 206
  • ISBN Code: 3647531030
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Summary: This exegetical study of creation and nature in 4 Ezra argues that this first-century Jewish apocalypse’s profound pessimism concerning humankind and the present age is matched by a surprisingly robust belief in the goodness of the created order. 4 Ezra presents the natural world as standing with God over and against corrupt humankind, envisions substantial elements of continuity between the ages and hints that those parts of the earth that remain unsullied by humankind still witness to God’s sovereignty, love and justice and even serve as material pointers to the new creation. This study calls into question the persistent assumption that apocalypticism and the ‘apocalyptic eschatology’ of the historical apocalypses in particular necessarily entails a profound dualism. Emerging as it does from an experience of historical disaster and unresolved questions of theodicy, 4 Ezra especially is often considered an apocalypse in which the doctrine of the two ages has been radicalised to the extent that creation, history and life in this world have lost their meaning or significance. The results of this study, however, indicate that while 4 Ezra considers the world of humankind to be corrupted and corrupting, in the natural world the creator’s sovereignty is not so obscured, and there his original intentions for creation can still be perceived. This study provides a fresh reading of 4 Ezra that takes seriously the book’s unity and coherence. Its conclusions suggest that it may be best to abandon the label ‘apocalyptic eschatology’ given its potential mask the interesting complexities and mix of continuity and discontinuity that attend the portrayal of creation, nature and hope in an apocalypse like 4 Ezra.

Divine Scapegoats Book by Andrei A. Orlov

Divine Scapegoats Book
  • Author : Andrei A. Orlov
  • Publisher : SUNY Press
  • Release Date : 2015-02-10
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN Code: 1438455844
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Summary: Explores the paradoxical symmetry between the divine and demonic in early Jewish mystical texts. Divine Scapegoats is a wide-ranging exploration of the parallels between the heavenly and the demonic in early Jewish apocalyptical accounts. In these materials, antagonists often mirror features of angelic figures, and even those of the Deity himself, an inverse correspondence that implies a belief that the demonic realm is maintained by imitating divine reality. Andrei A. Orlov examines the sacerdotal, messianic, and creational aspects of this mimetic imagery, focusing primarily on two texts from the Slavonic pseudepigrapha: 2 Enoch and the Apocalypse of Abraham. These two works are part of a very special cluster of Jewish apocalyptic texts that exhibit features not only of the apocalyptic worldview but also of the symbolic universe of early Jewish mysticism. The Yom Kippur ritual in the Apocalypse of Abraham, the divine light and darkness of 2 Enoch, and the similarity of mimetic motifs to later developments in the Zohar are of particular importance in Orlov’s consideration.

Jesus and God in Paul's Eschatology Book by Larry Joseph Kreitzer

Jesus and God in Paul's Eschatology Book
  • Author : Larry Joseph Kreitzer
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release Date : 2015-01-29
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 304
  • ISBN Code: 1474230717
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Summary: This probe into Paul's theology argues that in his eschatological thinking there is a conceptual overlap between Jesus and God. As in several pseudepigraphical texts, there is in Paul a certain identification of the roles of God and the messianic figure. Especially in Paul's doctrines of the parousia and the final judgment this overlap features the Old Testament idea of the Day of the Lord Yahweh becoming transposed into the Day of the Lord Christ. In examining Paul's teaching on the messiah and the Kingdom, Kreitzer offers a penetrating analysis of how Paul balanced theocentricity and christocentricity within his eschatology, and how the theme of Christ's subordination to God is interjected into his doctrine.

In the Shelter of Elyon Book by W. Boyd Barrick,John R. Spencer

In the Shelter of Elyon Book
  • Author : W. Boyd Barrick,John R. Spencer
  • Publisher : A&C Black
  • Release Date : 1984-10-01
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 330
  • ISBN Code: 0567166465
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Summary: This magnificent collection of articles on OT literature, history, religion and culture comprises the following studies: A.L. Merrill and J.R. Spencer, 'The Uppsala School' of Biblical Studies. W. Boyd Barrick, G.W. Ahlström in Profile. B. Glazier-McDonald, G.W. Ahlström: A Bibliography. W. Boyd Barrick and J.R. Spencer, Parentheses in a Snowstorm: G.W. Ahlström and the Study of Ancient Palestine. P.A.H. de Boer, Psalm 81.6a: Observations on Translation and Meaning of One Hebrew Line. N.C. Habel, The Role of Elihu in the Design of the Book of Job. C.E. L'Heureux, The Redactional History of Isaiah 5.1-10.4. D. Pardee, The Semantic Parallelism of Psalm 89. J. Van Seters, Joshua 24 and the Problem of Tradition in the Old Testament. M. Haran, The Shining of Moses' Face: A Case in Biblical and Ancient Near Eastern Iconography. A.S. Kapelrud, The Prophets and the Covenant. M. Ottosson, The Prophet Elijah's Visit to Zarephath. B. Otzen, Heavenly Visions in Early Judaism: Origin and Function. A.W. Sjöberg, Eve and the Chameleon. G. Widengren, Yahweh's Gathering of the Dispersed. P.R. Ackroyd, The Biblical Interpretation of the Reigns of Ahaz and Hezekiah. S. Herrmann, King David's State. S.A. Kaufman, A Reconstruction of the Social Welfare Systems of Ancient Israel. T.W. Overholt, Thoughts on the Use of Charisma in Old Testament Studies. J.M. Sasson, The Biographic Mode in Hebrew Historiography.

Matthew's Community Book by Stephenson Brooks

Matthew's Community Book
  • Author : Stephenson Brooks
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release Date : 2015-01-29
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN Code: 1474236316
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Summary: In this careful study, the unparalleled sayings in Matthew (the 'M' sayings) are investigated as a source of evidence for a reconstruction of the history of the community in which the various traditions were preserved. Using a wide range of criteria, Dr Brooks isolates fourteen 'M' sayings from major concentrations of unparalleled material in Matt. 5.17-6.18 and chs. 10 and 23, supplementing these with four additional sayings. The picture of the traditions that emerges provides the basis for a new hypothesis that reconstructs a three-stage history of the Matthean community, thereby accounting for the presence of some mutually exclusive traditions in the Gospel.

La r»tisserie de la Reine P_dauque Book by Anatole France

La r»tisserie de la Reine P_dauque Book
  • Author : Anatole France
  • Publisher : Library of Alexandria
  • Release Date : 2015-10-26
  • Category:
  • Pages : N.A
  • ISBN Code: 1465604871
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Summary: Il avait coutume de dire que les Elfes tuent ceux qui rŽv�lent leurs myst�res et il attribuait ˆ la vengeance de ces esprits la mort de M. l'abbŽ Coignard, qui fut assassinŽ sur la route de Lyon. Mais je sais bien que cette mort, ˆ jamais dŽplorable, eut une cause plus naturelle. Je parlerai librement des GŽnies de l'air et du feu. Il faut savoir courir quelques risques dans la vie, et celui des Elfes est extr�mement petit. J'ai recueilli avec z�le les propos de mon bon ma”tre, M. l'abbŽ JŽr™me Coignard, qui pŽrit comme je viens de le dire. C'Žtait un homme plein de science et de piŽtŽ. S'il avait eu l'‰me moins inqui�te, il aurait ŽgalŽ en vertu M. l'abbŽ Rollin, qu'il surpassait de beaucoup par l'Žtendue du savoir et la profondeur de l'intelligence. Il eut du moins, dans les agitations d'une vie troublŽe, l'avantage sur M. Rollin de ne point tomber dans le jansŽnisme. Car la soliditŽ de son esprit ne se laissait point Žbranler par la violence des doctrines tŽmŽraires, et je puis attester devant Dieu la puretŽ de sa foi. Il avait une grande connaissance du monde, acquise dans la frŽquentation de toutes sortes de compagnies. Cette expŽrience l'aurait beaucoup servi dans les histoires romaines qu'il aurait sans doute composŽes, ˆ l'exemple de M. Rollin, si le loisir et le temps ne lui eussent fait dŽfaut, et si sa vie ežt ŽtŽ mieux assortie ˆ son gŽnie. Ce que je rapporterai d'un si excellent homme fera l'ornement de ces mŽmoires. Et comme Aulu-Gelle, qui confŽra les plus beaux endroits des philosophes en ses Nuits attiques, comme ApulŽe, qui mit dans sa MŽtamorphose les meilleures fables des Grecs, je me donne un travail d'abeille et je veux recueillir un miel exquis. Je ne saurais nŽanmoins me flatter au point de me croire l'Žmule de ces deux grands auteurs, puisque c'est uniquement dans les propres souvenirs de ma vie et non dans d'abondantes lectures, que je puise toutes mes richesses. Ce que je fournis de mon propre fonds c'est la bonne foi. Si jamais quelque curieux lit mes mŽmoires, il reconna”tra qu'une ‰me candide pouvait seule s'exprimer dans un langage si simple et si uni. J'ai toujours passŽ pour tr�s na•f dans les compagnies o� j'ai vŽcu. Cet Žcrit ne peut que continuer cette opinion apr�s ma mort.

T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism Volume One Book by Loren T. Stuckenbruck,Daniel M. Gurtner

T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism Volume One Book
  • Author : Loren T. Stuckenbruck,Daniel M. Gurtner
  • Publisher : Bloomsbury Publishing
  • Release Date : 2019-12-26
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 648
  • ISBN Code: 0567658120
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Summary: The T&T Clark Encyclopedia of Second Temple Judaism provides a comprehensive reference resource of over 600 scholarly articles aimed at scholars and students interested in Judaism of the Second Temple Period. The two-volume work is split into four parts. Part One offers a prolegomenon for the contemporary study and appreciation of Second Temple Judaism, locating the discipline in relation to other relevant fields (such as Hebrew Bible, Rabbinics, Christian Origins). Beginning with a discussion of terminology, the discussion suggests ways the Second Temple period may be described, and concludes by noting areas of study that challenge our perception of ancient Judaism. Part Two presents an overview of respective contexts of the discipline set within the broad framework of historical chronology corresponding to a set of full-colour, custom-designed maps. With distinct attention to primary sources, the author traces the development of historical, social, political, and religious developments from the time period following the exile in the late 6th century B.C.E. through to the end of the Bar Kokhba revolt (135 C.E.). Part Three focuses specifically on a wide selection of primary-source literature of Second Temple Judaism, summarizing the content of key texts, and examining their similarities and differences with other texts of the period. Essays here include a brief introduction to the work and a summary of its contents, as well as examination of critical issues such as date, provenance, location, language(s), and interpretative matters. The early reception history of texts is also considered, and followed by a bibliography specific to that essay. Numerous high-resolution manuscript images are utilized to illustrate distinct features of the texts. Part Four addresses topics relevant to the Second Temple Period such as places, practices, historical figures, concepts, and subjects of scholarly discussion. These are often supplemented by images, maps, drawings, or diagrams, some of which appear here for the first time. Copiously illustrated, carefully researched and meticulously referenced, this resource provides a reliable, up-to-date and complete guide for those studying early Judaism in its literary and historical settings.