Summary: In the span of only seventy years, Estonia first proclaimed its independence, was occupied and deprived of its sovereignty, saw many of its citizens deported, and yet managed to recover its independence. How did this small nation keep its language and traditions alive during half a century of occupation, and how did it maintain such a vivid sense of identity? For the first time in English, this book gives a comprehensive view of the events which shaped the destiny of contemporary Estonia. The Editor, Jean-Jacques Subrenat, has called upon an unusually broad spectrum of the best experts (in history, archeology, political science, genetics, literature), but also on some of the leaders who took part in the rebuilding of Estonia, to offer more than a history, rather a unique testimony on a nation reborn. Estonia: Identity and Independence provides rare insight into the many aspects of a country whose location in Northern Europe, within the European Union, and as a NATO ally, but also as a close neighbour of Russia, deserves the attention of scholars, journalists, and informed readers today. This volume includes a thorough chronology of Estonia (from prehistory to accession to the European Union), and a brief c.v. of each co-author. Estonia: Identity and Independence is also available in three other languages (A. Bertricau is the pen-name of Jean-Jacques Subrenat, the initiator and Editor of this book): Estonian: 1st and 2nd edition: A. Bertricau, "Eesti identiteet ja iseseisvus," published by Avita in Tallinn, 2001 and 2002; Russian: A. Bertricau, "Samoopredelenie i nezavissimost' Estonii," published by Avita in Tallinn, August 2001; French: A. Bertricau, "Estonie, identite et independance," published by L'Harmattan in Paris, November 2001.