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Exploring Biology in the Laboratory, 3e Book by

Exploring Biology in the Laboratory, 3e Book
  • Author :
  • Publisher : Morton Publishing Company
  • Release Date : 2018-02-01
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 832
  • ISBN Code: 161731756X

Summary: This full-color, comprehensive, affordable introductory biology manual is appropriate for both majors and nonmajors laboratory courses. All general biology topics are covered extensively, and the manual is designed to be used with a minimum of outside reference material. The activities emphasize the unity of all living things and the evolutionary forces that have resulted in, and continue to act on, the diversity that we see around us today.

Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health Book by Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and Gender Differences

Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health Book
  • Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Committee on Understanding the Biology of Sex and Gender Differences
  • Publisher : National Academies Press
  • Release Date : 2001-07-02
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN Code: 9780309132978

Summary: It's obvious why only men develop prostate cancer and why only women get ovarian cancer. But it is not obvious why women are more likely to recover language ability after a stroke than men or why women are more apt to develop autoimmune diseases such as lupus. Sex differences in health throughout the lifespan have been documented. Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health begins to snap the pieces of the puzzle into place so that this knowledge can be used to improve health for both sexes. From behavior and cognition to metabolism and response to chemicals and infectious organisms, this book explores the health impact of sex (being male or female, according to reproductive organs and chromosomes) and gender (one's sense of self as male or female in society). Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health discusses basic biochemical differences in the cells of males and females and health variability between the sexes from conception throughout life. The book identifies key research needs and opportunities and addresses barriers to research. Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health will be important to health policy makers, basic, applied, and clinical researchers, educators, providers, and journalists-while being very accessible to interested lay readers.

Introduction to MATLAB® for Biologists Book by Cerian Ruth Webb,Mirela Domijan

Introduction to MATLAB® for Biologists Book
  • Author : Cerian Ruth Webb,Mirela Domijan
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2019-08-01
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 175
  • ISBN Code: 3030213374

Summary: This textbook takes you from the very first time you open MATLAB® through to a position where you can comfortably integrate this computer language into your research or studies. The book will familiarise you with the MATLAB interface, show you how to use the program ́s built-in functions and carefully guide you towards creating your own functions and scripts so that you can use MATLAB as a sophisticated tool to support your own research. A central aim of this book is to provide you with the core knowledge and skills required to become a confident MATLAB user so that you can find and make use of the many specialist functions and toolboxes that have been developed to support a wide range of biological applications. Examples presented within the book are selected to be relevant to biological scientists and they illustrate some of the many ways the program can be incorporated into, and used to enhance, your own research and studies. The textbook is a must-have for students and researchers in the biological sciences. It will also appeal to readers of all backgrounds who are looking for an introduction to MATLAB which is suitable for those with little or no experience of programming.

Exploring the World of Biology Book by John Hudson Tiner

Exploring the World of Biology Book
  • Author : John Hudson Tiner
  • Publisher : New Leaf Publishing Group
  • Release Date : 2008-11-01
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 160
  • ISBN Code: 1614581533

Summary: DISCOVER THE WORLD OF LIFE AS GOD CREATED IT! The field of biology focuses on living things, from the smallest microscopic protozoa to the largest mammal. In this book you will read and explore the life of plants, insects, spiders and other arachnids, life in water, reptiles, birds, and mammals, highlighting God's amazing creatio. You will learn about the following and so much more: How does biological classification give each different type of plant or animal a unique name? In what ways are seeds spread around the world? What food does the body use for long-term storage of energy? How did biologists learn how the stomach digested food? What plant gave George de Mestral the idea for Velcro? For most of history, biologists used the visible appearance of plants or animals to classify them. They grouped plants or animals with similar-looking features into families. Starting in the 1990s, biologists have extracted DNA and RNA from cells as a guide to how plants or animals should be grouped. Like visual structures, these reveal the underlying design or creation. The newest book in our Exploring series, Exploring the World of Biology is a fascinating look at life - from the smallest proteins and spores, to the complex life systems of humans and animals.

Computational Genomics with R Book by Altuna Akalin

Computational Genomics with R Book
  • Author : Altuna Akalin
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2020-12-16
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Pages : 440
  • ISBN Code: 1498781861

Summary: Computational Genomics with R provides a starting point for beginners in genomic data analysis and also guides more advanced practitioners to sophisticated data analysis techniques in genomics. The book covers topics from R programming, to machine learning and statistics, to the latest genomic data analysis techniques. The text provides accessible information and explanations, always with the genomics context in the background. This also contains practical and well-documented examples in R so readers can analyze their data by simply reusing the code presented. As the field of computational genomics is interdisciplinary, it requires different starting points for people with different backgrounds. For example, a biologist might skip sections on basic genome biology and start with R programming, whereas a computer scientist might want to start with genome biology. After reading: You will have the basics of R and be able to dive right into specialized uses of R for computational genomics such as using Bioconductor packages. You will be familiar with statistics, supervised and unsupervised learning techniques that are important in data modeling, and exploratory analysis of high-dimensional data. You will understand genomic intervals and operations on them that are used for tasks such as aligned read counting and genomic feature annotation. You will know the basics of processing and quality checking high-throughput sequencing data. You will be able to do sequence analysis, such as calculating GC content for parts of a genome or finding transcription factor binding sites. You will know about visualization techniques used in genomics, such as heatmaps, meta-gene plots, and genomic track visualization. You will be familiar with analysis of different high-throughput sequencing data sets, such as RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, and BS-seq. You will know basic techniques for integrating and interpreting multi-omics datasets. Altuna Akalin is a group leader and head of the Bioinformatics and Omics Data Science Platform at the Berlin Institute of Medical Systems Biology, Max Delbrück Center, Berlin. He has been developing computational methods for analyzing and integrating large-scale genomics data sets since 2002. He has published an extensive body of work in this area. The framework for this book grew out of the yearly computational genomics courses he has been organizing and teaching since 2015.

Modeling Life Book by Alan Garfinkel,Jane Shevtsov,Yina Guo

Modeling Life Book
  • Author : Alan Garfinkel,Jane Shevtsov,Yina Guo
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-09-06
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Pages : 445
  • ISBN Code: 3319597310

Summary: This book develops the mathematical tools essential for students in the life sciences to describe interacting systems and predict their behavior. From predator-prey populations in an ecosystem, to hormone regulation within the body, the natural world abounds in dynamical systems that affect us profoundly. Complex feedback relations and counter-intuitive responses are common in nature; this book develops the quantitative skills needed to explore these interactions. Differential equations are the natural mathematical tool for quantifying change, and are the driving force throughout this book. The use of Euler’s method makes nonlinear examples tractable and accessible to a broad spectrum of early-stage undergraduates, thus providing a practical alternative to the procedural approach of a traditional Calculus curriculum. Tools are developed within numerous, relevant examples, with an emphasis on the construction, evaluation, and interpretation of mathematical models throughout. Encountering these concepts in context, students learn not only quantitative techniques, but how to bridge between biological and mathematical ways of thinking. Examples range broadly, exploring the dynamics of neurons and the immune system, through to population dynamics and the Google PageRank algorithm. Each scenario relies only on an interest in the natural world; no biological expertise is assumed of student or instructor. Building on a single prerequisite of Precalculus, the book suits a two-quarter sequence for first or second year undergraduates, and meets the mathematical requirements of medical school entry. The later material provides opportunities for more advanced students in both mathematics and life sciences to revisit theoretical knowledge in a rich, real-world framework. In all cases, the focus is clear: how does the math help us understand the science?

It's Not You, It's Biology. Book by Joe Quirk

It's Not You, It's Biology. Book
  • Author : Joe Quirk
  • Publisher : Running Press Adult
  • Release Date : 2008-09-02
  • Category: Health & Fitness
  • Pages : 272
  • ISBN Code: 0786731729

Summary: At last, here's what you should've learned in high school biology! This paperback edition is an Everyman's humorous look at the real differences—biological, historical, psychological—between men and women…with fun and provocative insight into what really drives behavior and interactions between men and women. Men talk about women to men. Women talk about men to women. Men and women talk to each other (or try to) about relationships. It's Not You, It's Biology provides insight, ammunition, snappy comebacks, and interesting cocktail party banter for everyone who ever wondered why we do what we do vis-a-vis the opposite sex. It's Freakonomics for the Relationship-Challenged.

Calcium Signaling Book by Md. Shahidul Islam

Calcium Signaling Book
  • Author : Md. Shahidul Islam
  • Publisher : Springer Nature
  • Release Date : 2019-10-23
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 1110
  • ISBN Code: 3030124576

Summary: This volume contains a unique selection of chapters covering a wealth of contemporary topics in this ubiquitous and diverse system of cell signaling. It offers much more than the accessibility and authority of a primary text book, exploring topics ranging from the fundamental aspects of calcium signaling to its varied clinical implications. It presents comprehensive discussion of cutting-edge research alongside detailed analysis of critical issues, at the same time as setting out testable hypotheses that point the way to future scientific endeavors. The contributions feature material on theoretical and methodological topics as well as related subjects including mathematical modeling and simulations. They examine calcium signaling in a host of contexts, from mammalian cells to bacteria, fruit fly and zebrafish. With much of interest to newcomers to the field as well as seasoned experts, this new publication is both wide-ranging and authoritative. The chapter “Calcium Signaling: From Basic to Bedside” is available open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License via

The Art of Changing the Brain Book by James E. Zull

The Art of Changing the Brain Book
  • Author : James E. Zull
  • Publisher : Stylus Publishing, LLC
  • Release Date : 2020-05-28
  • Category: Education
  • Pages : 263
  • ISBN Code: 1642672025

Summary: Neuroscience tells us that the products of the mind--thought, emotions, artistic creation--are the result of the interactions of the biological brain with our senses and the physical world: in short, that thinking and learning are the products of a biological process. This realization, that learning actually alters the brain by changing the number and strength of synapses, offers a powerful foundation for rethinking teaching practice and one's philosophy of teaching. James Zull invites teachers in higher education or any other setting to accompany him in his exploration of what scientists can tell us about the brain and to discover how this knowledge can influence the practice of teaching. He describes the brain in clear non-technical language and an engaging conversational tone, highlighting its functions and parts and how they interact, and always relating them to the real world of the classroom and his own evolution as a teacher. "The Art of Changing the Brain" is grounded in the practicalities and challenges of creating effective opportunities for deep and lasting learning, and of dealing with students as unique learners.

The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants Book by Danny Geelen,Lin Xu

The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants Book
  • Author : Danny Geelen,Lin Xu
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2020-02-05
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 328
  • ISBN Code: 1119357241

Summary: Introduces readers to the chemical biology of plant biostimulants This book brings together different aspects of biostimulants, providing an overview of the variety of materials exploited as biostimulants, their biological activity, and agricultural applications. As different groups of biostimulants display different bioactivity and specificity, advances in biostimulant research is illustrated by different examples of biostimulants, such as humic substance, seaweed extracts, and substances with hormone-like activities. The book also reports on methods used to screen for new biostimulant compounds by exploring natural sources. Combining the expertise of internationally-renowned scientists and entrepreneurs in the area of biostimulants and biofertilisers, The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants offers in-depth chapters that look at: agricultural functions and action mechanisms of plant biostimulants (PBs); plant biostimulants from seaweed; seaweed carbohydrates; and the possible role for electron shuttling capacity in elicitation of PB activity of humic substances on plant growth enhancement. The subject of auxins is covered next, followed closely by a chapter on plant biostimulants in vermicomposts. Other topics include: exploring natural resources for biostimulants; the impact of biostimulants on whole plant and cellular levels; the impact of PBs on molecular level; and the use of use of plant metabolites to mitigate stress effects in crops. Provides an insightful introduction to the subject of biostimulants Discusses biostimulant modes of actions Covers microbial biostimulatory activities and biostimulant application strategies Offers unique and varied perspectives on the subject by a team of international contributors Features summaries of publications on biostimulants and biostimulant activity The Chemical Biology of Plant Biostimulants will appeal to a wide range of readers, including scientists and agricultural practitioners looking for more knowledge about the development and application of biostimulants.

Why Icebergs Float Book by Andrew Morris

Why Icebergs Float Book
  • Author : Andrew Morris
  • Publisher : UCL Press
  • Release Date : 2016-10-24
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN Code: 1911307045

Summary: From paintings and food to illness and icebergs, science is happening everywhere. Rather than follow the path of a syllabus or textbook, Andrew Morris takes examples from the science we see every day and uses them as entry points to explain a number of fundamental scientific concepts – from understanding colour to the nature of hormones – in ways that anyone can grasp. While each chapter offers a separate story, they are linked together by their fascinating relevance to our daily lives. The topics explored in each chapter are based on hundreds of discussions the author has led with adult science learners over many years – people who came from all walks of life and had no scientific training, but had developed a burning curiosity to understand the world around them. This book encourages us to reflect on our own relationship with science and serves as an important reminder of why we should continue learning as adults.

Campbell Biology Book by Lisa A. Urry,Michael L. Cain,Steven A. Wasserman,Peter V. Minorsky,Jane B. Reece

Campbell Biology Book
  • Author : Lisa A. Urry,Michael L. Cain,Steven A. Wasserman,Peter V. Minorsky,Jane B. Reece
  • Publisher : Pearson
  • Release Date : 2016-10-05
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 1393
  • ISBN Code: 0134446410

Summary: Note: You are purchasing a standalone product; MyLab™ & Mastering™ does not come packaged with this content. Students, if interested in purchasing this title with MyLab & Mastering, ask your instructor for the correct package ISBN and Course ID. Instructors, contact your Pearson representative for more information. If you would like to purchase both the physical text and MyLab & Mastering, search for: 0134082311 / 9780134082318 Campbell Biology Plus MasteringBiology with eText -- Access Card Package Package consists of: 0134093410 / 9780134093413 Campbell Biology 0134472942 / 9780134472942 MasteringBiology with Pearson eText -- ValuePack Access Card -- for Campbell Biology The World’s Most Successful Majors Biology Text and Media Program are Better than Ever The Eleventh Edition of the best-selling Campbell BIOLOGY sets students on the path to success in biology through its clear and engaging narrative, superior skills instruction, innovative use of art and photos, and fully integrated media resources to enhance teaching and learning. To engage learners in developing a deeper understanding of biology, the Eleventh Edition challenges them to apply their knowledge and skills to a variety of new hands-on activities and exercises in the text and online. Content updates throughout the text reflect rapidly evolving research, and new learning tools include Problem-Solving Exercises, Visualizing Figures, Visual Skills Questions, and more. Also Available with MasteringBiology™ MasteringBiology is an online homework, tutorial, and assessment product designed to improve results by helping students quickly master concepts. Features in the text are supported and integrated with MasteringBiology assignments, including new Figure Walkthroughs, Galapagos Evolution Video Activities, Get Ready for This Chapter questions, Visualizing Figure Tutorials, Problem-Solving Exercises, and more.

Quantitative Biology of Endocytosis Book by Julien Berro,Michael M. Lacy

Quantitative Biology of Endocytosis Book
  • Author : Julien Berro,Michael M. Lacy
  • Publisher : Biota Publishing
  • Release Date : 2018-07-25
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 74
  • ISBN Code: 1615047859

Summary: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a ubiquitous internalization process in eukaryotic cells. It consists of the formation of an approximately 50-nm diameter vesicle out of a flat membrane. Genetics, biochemistry, and microscopy experiments performed in the last four decades have been instrumental to discover and characterize major endocytic proteins in yeast and mammals. However, due to the highly dynamic nature of the endocytic assembly and its small size, many questions remain unresolved: how are endocytic proteins organized spatially and dynamically? How are forces produced and how are their directions controlled? How do the biochemical activities of endocytic proteins and the membrane shape and mechanics regulate each other? These questions are virtually impossible to visualize or measure directly with conventional approaches but thanks to new quantitative biology methods, it is now possible to infer the mechanisms of endocytosis in exquisite detail. This book introduces quantitative microscopy and mathematical modeling approaches that have been used to count the copy number of endocytic proteins, infer their localization with nanometer precision, and infer molecular and physical mechanisms that are involved in the robust formation of endocytic vesicles.

Introduction to Quantitative Cell Biology Book by Wallace F. Marshall

Introduction to Quantitative Cell Biology Book
  • Author : Wallace F. Marshall
  • Publisher : Biota Publishing
  • Release Date : 2017-07-20
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 50
  • ISBN Code: 1615046690

Summary: For the past decade or more, much of cell biology research has been focused on determining the key molecules involved in different cellular processes, an analytical problem that has been amenable to biochemical and genetic approaches. Now, we face an integrative problem of understanding how all of these molecules work together to produce living cells, a challenge that requires using quantitative approaches to model the complex interactions within a cell, and testing those models with careful quantitative measurements. This book is an introductory overview of the various approaches, methods, techniques, and models employed in quantitative cell biology, which are reviewed in greater detail in the other volumes in this e-book series. Particular emphasis is placed on the goals and purpose of quantitative analysis and modeling, and the special challenges that cell biology holds for understanding life at the physical level.

Vascular Biology of the Placenta Book by Yuping Wang

Vascular Biology of the Placenta Book
  • Author : Yuping Wang
  • Publisher : Biota Publishing
  • Release Date : 2017-06-23
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 113
  • ISBN Code: 1615047514

Summary: The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall, thereby allowing nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply. Proper vascular development in the placenta is fundamental to ensuring a healthy fetus and successful pregnancy. This book provides an up-to-date summary and synthesis of knowledge regarding placental vascular biology and discusses the relevance of this vascular bed to the functions of the human placenta.

Algebraic and Discrete Mathematical Methods for Modern Biology Book by Raina Robeva

Algebraic and Discrete Mathematical Methods for Modern Biology Book
  • Author : Raina Robeva
  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2015-05-09
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Pages : 382
  • ISBN Code: 0128012714

Summary: Written by experts in both mathematics and biology, Algebraic and Discrete Mathematical Methods for Modern Biology offers a bridge between math and biology, providing a framework for simulating, analyzing, predicting, and modulating the behavior of complex biological systems. Each chapter begins with a question from modern biology, followed by the description of certain mathematical methods and theory appropriate in the search of answers. Every topic provides a fast-track pathway through the problem by presenting the biological foundation, covering the relevant mathematical theory, and highlighting connections between them. Many of the projects and exercises embedded in each chapter utilize specialized software, providing students with much-needed familiarity and experience with computing applications, critical components of the "modern biology" skill set. This book is appropriate for mathematics courses such as finite mathematics, discrete structures, linear algebra, abstract/modern algebra, graph theory, probability, bioinformatics, statistics, biostatistics, and modeling, as well as for biology courses such as genetics, cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, ecology, and evolution. Examines significant questions in modern biology and their mathematical treatments Presents important mathematical concepts and tools in the context of essential biology Features material of interest to students in both mathematics and biology Presents chapters in modular format so coverage need not follow the Table of Contents Introduces projects appropriate for undergraduate research Utilizes freely accessible software for visualization, simulation, and analysis in modern biology Requires no calculus as a prerequisite Provides a complete Solutions Manual Features a companion website with supplementary resources

Guide to Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology Book by

Guide to Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology Book
  • Author :
  • Publisher : Gulf Professional Publishing
  • Release Date : 2004-05-14
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 933
  • ISBN Code: 0080575137

Summary: Guide to Yeast Genetics and Molecular Biology presents, for the first time, a comprehensive compilation of the protocols and procedures that have made Saccharomyces cerevisiae such a facile system for all researchers in molecular and cell biology. Whether you are an established yeast biologist or a newcomer to the field, this volume contains all the up-to-date methods you will need to study "Your Favorite Gene" in yeast. Key Features * Basic Methods in Yeast Genetics * Physical and genetic mapping * Making and recovering mutants * Cloning and Recombinant DNA Methods * High-efficiency transformation * Preparation of yeast artificial chromosome vectors * Basic Methods of Cell Biology * Immunomicroscopy * Protein targeting assays * Biochemistry of Gene Expression * Vectors for regulated expression * Isolation of labeled and unlabeled DNA, RNA, and protein

Artificial Intelligence in Education Book by Seiji Isotani,Eva Millán,Amy Ogan,Peter Hastings,Bruce McLaren,Rose Luckin

Artificial Intelligence in Education Book
  • Author : Seiji Isotani,Eva Millán,Amy Ogan,Peter Hastings,Bruce McLaren,Rose Luckin
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2019-06-20
  • Category: Computers
  • Pages : 561
  • ISBN Code: 3030232042

Summary: This two-volume set LNCS 11625 and 11626 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, AIED 2019, held in Chicago, IL, USA, in June 2019. The 45 full papers presented together with 41 short, 10 doctoral consortium, 6 industry, and 10 workshop papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 177 submissions. AIED 2019 solicits empirical and theoretical papers particularly in the following lines of research and application: Intelligent and interactive technologies in an educational context; Modelling and representation; Models of teaching and learning; Learning contexts and informal learning; Evaluation; Innovative applications; Intelligent techniques to support disadvantaged schools and students, inequity and inequality in education.​

Networking of Mutagens in Environmental Toxicology Book by Kavindra Kumar Kesari

Networking of Mutagens in Environmental Toxicology Book
  • Author : Kavindra Kumar Kesari
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2019-05-25
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 183
  • ISBN Code: 3319965115

Summary: This book covers the latest environmental issues based on current research objectives. All chapters are fundamentally interlinked and focus on deciphering the networking of mutagens in environmental toxicity and human health. Our changing environment, climate, and lifestyle factors are growing concerns in the 21st century. The existing mutagens, either physical or chemical, are responsible for environmental toxicity. These toxicants are carcinogenic and not limited to naturally occurring chemicals or biologicals, but can also be man-made, such as 'radiation'. The networking of mutagens can have a broad range of effects on both the environment and human health. Accordingly, the respective chapters explore the networking of mutagens in connection with environmental toxicity, and address: 1. Extant types of man-made radiation and their effects on the environment and biological systems2. Heavy metal contaminations: Effects on environmental health3. Networking of environmental pollutants in the air, dust, soil, water, and natural toxins in the environment: Exposure and health4. The molecular interaction of environmental carcinogens with DNA: An oncoinformatics approach5. Fundamentals of nonotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenic and neurotoxicity in environmental health6. The role of antioxidants and medicinal plants in reducing the impacts of disease-causing pollutants A sequel to Perspectives in Environmental Toxicology, this book highlights the latest developments in the field of environmental toxicology. It offers a valuable resource for researchers, scholars and graduate students alike.

Scale Book by Geoffrey West

Scale Book
  • Author : Geoffrey West
  • Publisher : Penguin
  • Release Date : 2017-05-16
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 496
  • ISBN Code: 1101621508

Summary: "This is science writing as wonder and as inspiration." —The Wall Street Journal Wall Street Journal From one of the most influential scientists of our time, a dazzling exploration of the hidden laws that govern the life cycle of everything from plants and animals to the cities we live in. Visionary physicist Geoffrey West is a pioneer in the field of complexity science, the science of emergent systems and networks. The term “complexity” can be misleading, however, because what makes West’s discoveries so beautiful is that he has found an underlying simplicity that unites the seemingly complex and diverse phenomena of living systems, including our bodies, our cities and our businesses. Fascinated by aging and mortality, West applied the rigor of a physicist to the biological question of why we live as long as we do and no longer. The result was astonishing, and changed science: West found that despite the riotous diversity in mammals, they are all, to a large degree, scaled versions of each other. If you know the size of a mammal, you can use scaling laws to learn everything from how much food it eats per day, what its heart-rate is, how long it will take to mature, its lifespan, and so on. Furthermore, the efficiency of the mammal’s circulatory systems scales up precisely based on weight: if you compare a mouse, a human and an elephant on a logarithmic graph, you find with every doubling of average weight, a species gets 25% more efficient—and lives 25% longer. Fundamentally, he has proven, the issue has to do with the fractal geometry of the networks that supply energy and remove waste from the organism’s body. West’s work has been game-changing for biologists, but then he made the even bolder move of exploring his work’s applicability. Cities, too, are constellations of networks and laws of scalability relate with eerie precision to them. Recently, West has applied his revolutionary work to the business world. This investigation has led to powerful insights into why some companies thrive while others fail. The implications of these discoveries are far-reaching, and are just beginning to be explored. Scale is a thrilling scientific adventure story about the elemental natural laws that bind us together in simple but profound ways. Through the brilliant mind of Geoffrey West, we can envision how cities, companies and biological life alike are dancing to the same simple, powerful tune.