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Chipped Stone Tool Use in the Maya Coastal Economies of Marco Gonzalez and San Pedro, Ambergris Caye, Belize
  • Author : William James Stemp
  • Publisher : British Archaeological Reports Limited
  • Release Date : 2001
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 307
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: A highly detailed analysis of stone tools recovered from excavations at two sites on the coral island of Ambergris Caye, off the coast of Belize, which revealed evidence of continued occupation on the island from c.100 BC until well into the Historic period. The study of the wear of tools provides a clear picture of the ways in which the Maya exploited the island's natural resources, notably fish, shell, coral and salt, while comparison of the sites shows the level of interaction between communities. Sections present a tool typology and discuss lithic technology, raw materials and the archaeological context and distribution of the assemblages.


Chipped Stone Tool Use in the Maya Coastal Economies of Marco Gonzalez and San Pedro, Ambergris Caye, Belize
  • Author : William James Stemp
  • Publisher : British Archaeological Reports Limited
  • Release Date : 2001
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 307
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: A highly detailed analysis of stone tools recovered from excavations at two sites on the coral island of Ambergris Caye, off the coast of Belize, which revealed evidence of continued occupation on the island from c.100 BC until well into the Historic period. The study of the wear of tools provides a clear picture of the ways in which the Maya exploited the island's natural resources, notably fish, shell, coral and salt, while comparison of the sites shows the level of interaction between communities. Sections present a tool typology and discuss lithic technology, raw materials and the archaeological context and distribution of the assemblages.




Latin America
  • Author : Juan Manuel Pérez
  • Publisher : Xlibris Corporation
  • Release Date : 2004
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Pages : 588
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: This is a general bibliography on Latin America, covering a wide variety of subjects, from pre-Columbian civilizations, to Columbus, to Castro, to the foreign debt, to pollution, ect. This work will not only be of use to the general, casual reader on Latin America, but also to the more specialized researcher. The book contains over 800 topics, with over 8,000 titles identified.


Ancient Maya Traders of Ambergris Caye
  • Author : Thomas H. Guderjan
  • Publisher : University of Alabama Press
  • Release Date : 2007-11-26
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 39
  • ISBN Code: 0817354638

Summary: Archaeologists are unsure exactly when the Maya inhabited the coastal areas of Belize, but ample evidence exists to support an extensive maritime trade network along the coast by A.D. 600 This volume focuses on the maritime trade network sites on Ambergris Caye, Belize where excavations have revealed remnants of very small villages, or camps, along the Caribbean coastline.


The Ancient Maya
  • Author : Robert J. Sharer,Loa P. Traxler
  • Publisher : Stanford University Press
  • Release Date : 2006
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 931
  • ISBN Code: 9780804748179

Summary: The rich findings of recent exploration and research are incorporated in this completely revised and greatly expanded sixth edition of this standard work on the Maya people. New field discoveries, new technical advances, new successes in the decipherment of Maya writing, and new theoretical perspectives on the Maya past have made this new edition necessary.



The Technology of Maya Civilization
  • Author : Zachary X. Hruby,Geoffrey E. Braswell,Oswaldo Chinchilla Mazariegos
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2014-10-14
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 288
  • ISBN Code: 131754417X

Summary: The ancient Maya shaped their world with stone tools. Lithic artifacts helped create the cityscape and were central to warfare and hunting, craft activities, cooking, and ritual performance. 'The Technology of Maya Civilization' examines Maya lithic artefacts made of chert, obsidian, silicified limestone, and jade to explore the relationship between ancient civilizations and natural resources. The volume presents case studies of archaeological sites in Guatemala, Mexico, Belize, and Honduras. The analysis draws on innovative anthropological theory to argue that stone artefacts were not merely cultural products but tools that reproduced, modified, and created the fabric of society.



Histories of Maize in Mesoamerica
  • Author : John Staller,Robert Tykot,Bruce Benz
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2016-06-16
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 280
  • ISBN Code: 1315427281

Summary: This volume reprints 20 chapters from the editors’ comprehensive Histories of Maize (2006) that are relevant to Mesoamerican specialists and students. New findings and interpretations from the past three years have been included. Histories of Maize is the most comprehensive reference source on the botanical, genetic, archaeological, and anthropological aspects of ancient maize published. Included in this abridged volume are new introductory and concluding chapters and updated material on isotopic research. State of the art research on maize chronology, molecular biology, and stable carbon isotope research on ancient human diets have provided additional lines of evidence on the changing role of maize through time and space and its spread throughout the Americas. The multidisciplinary evidence from the social and biological sciences presented in this volume have generated a much more complex picture of the economic, political, and religious significance of maize.


The Word Rhythm Dictionary
  • Author : Timothy Polashek
  • Publisher : Scarecrow Press
  • Release Date : 2014-04-18
  • Category: Music
  • Pages : 708
  • ISBN Code: 0810884178

Summary: This new kind of dictionary reflects the use of “rhythm rhymes” by rappers, poets, and songwriters of today. Users can look up words to find collections of words that have the same rhythm as the original and are useable in ways that are familiar to us in everything from vers libre poetry to the lyrics and music of Bob Dylan and hip hop groups.



Experimental Determination of Stone Tool Uses
  • Author : Lawrence H. Keeley,Professor of Anthropology Lawrence H Keeley
  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Release Date : 1980-03-15
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 212
  • ISBN Code: 9780226428895

Summary: A major problem confronting archeologists is how to determine the function of ancient stone tools. In this important work, Lawrence H. Keeley reports on his own highly successful course of research into the uses of British Paleolithic flint implements. His principal method of investigation, known as "microwear analysis," was the microscopic examination of traces of use left on flint implements in the form of polishes, striations, and breakage patterns. The most important discovery arising from Keeley's research was that, at magnifications of 100x to 400x, there was a high correlation between the detailed appearance of microwear polishes formed on tool edges and the general category of material worked by that edge. For example, different and distinctive types of microwear polish were formed during use on wood, bone, hide, meat, and soft plant material. These correlations between microwear polish and worked material were independent of the method of use (cutting, sawing, scraping, and so on). In combining evidence of polish type with other traces of use, Keeley was able to make precise reconstructions of tool functions. This book includes the results of a "blind test" of Keeley's functional interpretations which revealed remarkable agreement between the actual and inferred use of the tools tested. Keeley applied his method of microwear analysis to artifacts from three excavation sites in Britain—Clacton-on-the-sea, Swanscombe, and Hoxne. His research suggests new hypotheses concerning such Paleolithic problems as inter-assemblage variability, the function of Acheulean hand axes, sidescrapers, and chopper-cores and points the way to future research in Stone Age studies.


Ancient Maya Women
  • Author : Traci Ardren
  • Publisher : Rowman Altamira
  • Release Date : 2002
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 293
  • ISBN Code: 9780759100107

Summary: Edited volume tracing the state of knowledge of gender in Ancient Mayan society. Visit our website for sample chapters!


Twelve Years a Slave
  • Author : Solomon Northup
  • Publisher : Readme Publishing
  • Release Date : 2014-03-08
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN Code: 9949952328

Summary: Now a major motion picture nominated for nine Academy Awards. Narrative of Solomon Northup, a Citizen of New-York, Kidnapped in Washington City in 1841, and Rescued in 1853. Twelve Years a Slave by Solomon Northup is a memoir of a black man who was born free in New York state but kidnapped, sold into slavery and kept in bondage for 12 years in Louisiana before the American Civil War. He provided details of slave markets in Washington, DC, as well as describing at length cotton cultivation on major plantations in Louisiana.


Gender and Power in Prehispanic Mesoamerica
  • Author : Rosemary A. Joyce
  • Publisher : University of Texas Press
  • Release Date : 2009-06-23
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 287
  • ISBN Code: 0292779739

Summary: Gender was a fluid potential, not a fixed category, before the Spaniards came to Mesoamerica. Childhood training and ritual shaped, but did not set, adult gender, which could encompass third genders and alternative sexualities as well as "male" and "female." At the height of the Classic period, Maya rulers presented themselves as embodying the entire range of gender possibilities, from male through female, by wearing blended costumes and playing male and female roles in state ceremonies. This landmark book offers the first comprehensive description and analysis of gender and power relations in prehispanic Mesoamerica from the Formative Period Olmec world (ca. 1500-500 BC) through the Postclassic Maya and Aztec societies of the sixteenth century AD. Using approaches from contemporary gender theory, Rosemary Joyce explores how Mesoamericans created human images to represent idealized notions of what it meant to be male and female and to depict proper gender roles. She then juxtaposes these images with archaeological evidence from burials, house sites, and body ornaments, which reveals that real gender roles were more fluid and variable than the stereotyped images suggest.


The Code of Kings
  • Author : Linda Schele,Peter Mathews,Macduff Everton
  • Publisher : Simon and Schuster
  • Release Date : 1999-06-06
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 432
  • ISBN Code: 0684852098

Summary: This highly informative tour of a lost civilization discusses Mayan history and culture and focuses on seven sites that exemplify the Mayan tradition of using public places to record their history and belief system. Maps, drawings & photos.



Ruins of the Past
  • Author : Travis W. Stanton,Aline Magnoni
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2008-03-30
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 364
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: From the Preclassic to the present, Maya peoples have continuously built, altered, abandoned, and re-used structures, imbuing them with new meanings at each transformation. RUINS OF THE PAST is the first volume to focus on how later Maya peoples perceived, used, and sometimes ritually destroyed ruins of structures built by ancestors.


The Classic Maya
  • Author : Stephen D. Houston,Takeshi Inomata
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2009-09-14
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 402
  • ISBN Code: 9780521669726

Summary: In the first millennium AD, the Classic Maya created courtly societies in and around the Yucatan Peninsula that have left some of the most striking intellectual and aesthetic achievements of the ancient world, including large settlements like Tikal, Copan, and Palenque. This book is the first in-depth synthesis of the Classic Maya. It is richly informed by new decipherments of hieroglyphs and decades of intensive excavation and survey. Structured by categories of person in society, it reports on kings, queens, nobles, gods, and ancestors, as well as the many millions of farmers and other figures who lived in societies predicated on sacred kingship and varying political programs. The Classic Maya presents a tandem model of societies bound by moral covenants and convulsed by unavoidable tensions between groups, all affected by demographic trends and changing environments. Focusing on the Classic heartland but referring to other zones, it will serve as the basic source for all readers interested in the civilization of the Maya.


Lithics in Action
  • Author : Elizabeth A. Walker,Francis F. Wenban-Smith,Frances Healy
  • Publisher : Oxbow Books Limited
  • Release Date : 2004
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 262
  • ISBN Code: 9781842171301

Summary: Most of these 28 papers were originally presented at the conference Lithic Studies in the Year 2000 , hosted by the Lithic Studies Society in Cardiff, 2000. The original purpose of the conference was to celebrate the coming of age of the Lithic Studies Society in its twenty-first year, and to consider the state of research and potential new developments in lithic analysis at the beginning of the twenty-first century AD. The papers have been divided into three thematic sections. In the first section, "Behaviour and cognition in the Lower and Middle Palaeolithic", the contributors look at ways to reconstruct past human behaviours and cognitive capabilites from periods when lithic evidence is the primary, and sometimes the only source of evidence. Most focus on undisturbed lithic sites and use the analysis of refitted lithic artefacts to approach questions of technology, taphonomy, and the human use of space. In the second section, "Rocks, residues and use-wear", the contributors are concerned with the study of the original characteristics of rocks from different areas of the earth's surface, the selection of specific raw materials for manufacture into tools, the uses to which these tools were put, and how they were used. In the final section, "After hunter-gatherers", the contributors consider the role of lithics in increasingly complex societies and exchange networks, where lithics form just one strand of evidence among many.



Encyclopedia of Caribbean Archaeology
  • Author : Basil A. Reid,R. Grant Gilmore, III
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2014
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 383
  • ISBN Code: 9780813044200

Summary: A sweeping overview of the scholarly information available on archaeology in the Caribbean, tackling the usual questions of colonization, adaptation, and evolution while embracing such newer aspects as geoinformatics and archaeometry.


Art of the Maya Scribe
  • Author : Michael Coe,Justin Kerr
  • Publisher : Harry N Abrams Incorporated
  • Release Date : 1998-02
  • Category: Art
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: To the four great calligraphic traditions - ancient Egyptian, East Asian, Islamic, and western European - is now added a fifth: that of the ancient Maya. Long known but little understood, Maya writing has now largely been deciphered, leading to a new understanding of the Maya scribes and the society in which they lived. This volume is the first to make full use of the latest research and the first to consider Maya writing both aesthetically and in terms of its meaning. Michael D. Coe begins by examining the origins and character of the script. He then explores the world of the scribes and "keepers of the holy books, " decoding their depiction in Maya art and describing the mediums in which they worked, their tools, and techniques.


Archaeological Investigations of the Northern Maya Highlands, Guatemala
  • Author : Robert James Sharer,David W. Sedat
  • Publisher : UPenn Museum of Archaeology
  • Release Date : 1987
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 487
  • ISBN Code: 9780934718592

Summary: Final report of the 1970-1974 research conducted in the Salama Valley, Baja Verapaz, and adjacent areas of the highlands of Guatemala. The volume presents the results of the first comprehensive study of northern highland preclassic occupation and cultural development in light of the question of highland-lowland interaction and its role in the growth of Maya civilization.


The Oxford Illustrated History of English Literature
  • Author : John Anthony Burrow,John Pitcher,Brian Vickers,Isobel Grundy,Claire Lamont,Andrew Sanders,Bernard Bergonzi,Martin Dodsworth
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release Date : 2001
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Pages : 528
  • ISBN Code: 9780192854377

Summary: Traces the development of English literature from Anglo-Saxon poetry to the present day, covering such prominent authors as Shakespeare, Milton, Eliot, Spark, and Heaney.


Scribes, Warriors and Kings
  • Author : William L. Fash
  • Publisher : Thames & Hudson
  • Release Date : 1993-03
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 192
  • ISBN Code: 9780500277089

Summary: Copan in modern Honduras was one of the great cities of the Classic Maya. Explorers found ruined temples, plazas, and more hieroglyphic inscriptions and sculpted monuments than in any other site in the New World. But the stones were silent, the script undeciphered.





Specialization, Exchange and Complex Societies
  • Author : Elizabeth M. Brumfiel,Timothy K. Earle,Francoise Audouze,John Disney Professor of Archaeology Cyprian Broodbank,Colin Renfrew,Nathan Schlanger,Andrew Sherratt,Timothy Taylor,Professor of Anthropology Norman Yoffee,Wendy Ashmore,Professor of Archaeology Tim Murray
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 1987-01-22
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 150
  • ISBN Code: 9780521321181

Summary: This book, a comparative study of specialised production in prehistoric societies, examines approaches to specialization and exchange.


Stone Tool Use at Cerros
  • Author : Suzanne M. Lewenstein
  • Publisher : University of Texas Press
  • Release Date : 2012-10-10
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 238
  • ISBN Code: 0292741278

Summary: For centuries scholars have pondered and speculated over the uses of the chipped stone implements uncovered at archaeological sites. Recently a number of researchers have attempted to determine prehistoric tool function through experimentation and through observation of the few remaining human groups who still retain this knowledge. Learning how stone tools were made and used in the past can tell us a great deal about ancient economic systems, exchange networks, and the social and political structure of prehistoric societies. Suzanne M. Lewenstein used the artifacts from Cerros, an important Late Preclassic (200 BC–AD 200) Mayan site in northern Belize, to study stone tool function. Through a comprehensive program of experimentation with stone tool replicas, she was able not only to infer the tasks performed by individual tool specimens but also to recognize a wide variety of past activities for which stone tools were used. Unlike previous works that focused on hunter-gatherer groups, Stone Tool Use at Cerros is the first comprehensive experimental study of tool use in an agricultural society. The lithic data are used in an economic interpretation of a lowland Mayan community within a hierarchically complex society. Apart from its significance to Mayan studies, this innovative work offers the beginnings of a reference collection of identifiable tool functions that may be documented for sedentary, complex society. It will be of major interest to all archaeologists and anthropologists, as well as those interested in economic specialization and artisanry in complex societies.


Maya Society Under Colonial Rule
  • Author : Nancy Marguerite Farriss
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release Date : 1984-06-21
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 585
  • ISBN Code: 9780691101583

Summary: This is a study of the Maya Indians of Yucatan, Mexico, from late preconquest times through the end of the Spanish colonial rule.


Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Stone Age Weaponry
  • Author : Radu Iovita,Katsuhiro Sano
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2016-05-28
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 303
  • ISBN Code: 9401776024

Summary: The objective of this volume is to showcase the contemporary state of research on recognizing and evaluating the performance of stone age weapons from a variety of viewpoints, including investigating their cognitive and evolutionary significance. New archaeological finds and experimental studies have helped to bring this subject back to the forefront of human origins research. In the last few years, investigations have expanded beyond examining the tools themselves to include studies of damage caused by projectile weapons on animal and hominin bones and skeletal asymmetries in ancient hominin populations. Only recently has there been a growing interest in controlled and replicative experiments. Through this book readers will be updated in the state of knowledge through a multidisciplinary scientific reconstruction of prehistoric weapon use and its implications. Contributions from expert authors are organized into three themed parts: recognizing weapon use (experimental and archaeological studies of impact traces), performance of weapon systems (factors influencing penetration depth etc.), and behavioral and evolutionary ramifications (cognitive and ecological effects of using different weapons).



The Maya World
  • Author : Matthew Restall
  • Publisher : Stanford University Press
  • Release Date : 1999-02-01
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 476
  • ISBN Code: 0804765006

Summary: This pathbreaking work is a social and cultural history of the Maya peoples of the province of Yucatan in colonial Mexico, spanning the period from shortly after the Spanish conquest of the region to its incorporation as part of an independent Mexico. Instead of depending on the Spanish sources and perspectives that have formed the basis of previous scholarship on colonial Yucatan, the author aims to give a voice to the Maya themselves, basing his analysis entirely on his translations of hundreds of Yucatec Maya notarial documents—from libraries and archives in Mexico, Spain, and the United States—most of which have never before received scholarly attention. These documents allow the author to reconstruct the social and cultural world of the Maya municipality, or cah, the self-governing community where most Mayas lived and which was the focus of Maya social and political identity. The first two parts of the book examine the ways in which Mayas were organized and differentiated from each other within the community, and the discussion covers such topics as individual and group identities, sociopolitical organization, political factionalism, career patterns, class structures, household and family patterns, inheritance, gender roles, sexuality, and religion. The third part explores the material environment of the cah, emphasizing the role played by the use and exchange of land, while the fourth part describes in detail the nature and significance of the source documentation, its genres and its language. Throughout the book, the author pays attention to the comparative contexts of changes over time and the similarities or differences between Maya patterns and those of other colonial-era Mesoamericans, notably the Nahuas of central Mexico.



Maya Palaces and Elite Residences
  • Author : Jessica Joyce Christie
  • Publisher : University of Texas Press
  • Release Date : 2010-01-01
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 352
  • ISBN Code: 0292782624

Summary: Maya "palaces" have intrigued students of this ancient Mesoamerican culture since the early twentieth century, when scholars first applied the term "palace" to multi-room, gallery-like buildings set on low platforms in the centers of Maya cities. Who lived in these palaces? What types of ceremonial and residential activities took place there? How do the physical forms and spatial arrangement of the buildings embody Maya concepts of social organization and cosmology? This book brings together state-of-the-art data and analysis regarding the occupants, ritual and residential uses, and social and cosmological meanings of Maya palaces and elite residences. A multidisciplinary team of senior researchers reports on sites in Belize (Blue Creek), Western Honduras (Copan), the Peten (Tikal, Dos Pilas, Aguateca), and the Yucatan (Uxmal, Chichen-Itza, Dzibilchaltun, Yaxuna). Archaeologist contributors discuss the form of palace buildings and associated artifacts, their location within the city, and how some palaces related to landscape features. Their approach is complemented by art historical analyses of architectural sculpture, epigraphy, and ethnography. Jessica Joyce Christie concludes the volume by identifying patterns and commonalties that apply not only to the cited examples, but also to Maya architecture in general.


The Fall of the Ancient Maya
  • Author : David L. Webster
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2002
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN Code: 9780500051139

Summary: An account of the mysterious fall of the ancient Maya civilization evaluates current theories and myths, citing sixteenth-century evidence of a residual population and offering a portrait of its Late Classic society beset by overly ambitious nobles, wars, and an exploding population that could not be sustained by its scanty agriculture.