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Gold and Power in Ancient Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia
  • Author : Jeffrey Quilter,John W. Hoopes
  • Publisher : Dumbarton Oaks
  • Release Date : 2003
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 429
  • ISBN Code: 9780884022947

Summary: The lands between Mesoamerica and the Central Andes are famed for the rich diversity of ancient cultures that inhabited them. Throughout this vast region, from about AD 700 until the sixteenth-century Spanish invasion, a rich and varied tradition of goldworking was practiced. The amount of gold produced and worn by native inhabitants was so great that Columbus dubbed the last New World shores he sailed as Costa Rica—the "Rich Coast." Despite the long-recognized importance of the region in its contribution to Pre-Columbian culture, very few books are readily available, especially in English, on these lands of gold. Gold and Power in Ancient Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia now fills that gap with eleven articles by leading scholars in the field. Issues of culture change, the nature of chiefdom societies, long-distance trade and transport, ideologies of value, and the technologies of goldworking are covered in these essays as are the role of metals as expressions and materializations of spiritual, political, and economic power. These topics are accompanied by new information on the role of stone statuary and lapidary work, craft and trade specialization, and many more topics, including a reevaluation of the concept of the "Intermediate Area." Collectively, the volume provides a new perspective on the prehistory of these lands and includes articles by Latin American scholars whose writings have rarely been published in English.


The Settlement of the American Continents
  • Author : C. Michael Barton,Geoffrey A. Clark,David R. Yesner,Georges A. Pearson
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2016
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 290
  • ISBN Code: 0816532826

Summary: When many scholars are asked about early human settlement in the Americas, they might point to a handful of archaeological sites as evidence. Yet the process was not a simple one, and today there is no consistent argument favoring a particular scenario for the peopling of the New World. This book approaches the human settlement of the Americas from a biogeographical perspective in order to provide a better understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of this unique event. It considers many of the questions that continue to surround the peopling of the Western Hemisphere, focusing not on sites, dates, and artifacts but rather on theories and models that attempt to explain how the colonization occurred. Unlike other studies, this book draws on a wide range of disciplines--archaeology, human genetics and osteology, linguistics, ethnology, and ecology--to present the big picture of this migration. Its wide-ranging content considers who the Pleistocene settlers were and where they came from, their likely routes of migration, and the ecological role of these pioneers and the consequences of colonization. Comprehensive in both geographic and topical coverage, the contributions include an explanation of how the first inhabitants could have spread across North America within several centuries, the most comprehensive review of new mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome data relating to the colonization, and a critique of recent linguistic theories. Although the authors lean toward a conservative rather than an extreme chronology, this volume goes beyond the simplistic emphasis on dating that has dominated the debate so far to a concern with late Pleistocene forager adaptations and how foragers may have coped with a wide range of environmental and ecological factors. It offers researchers in this exciting field the most complete summary of current knowledge and provides non-specialists and general readers with new answers to the questions surrounding the origins of the first Americans.


Case Studies in Environmental Archaeology
  • Author : Elizabeth Reitz,C. Margaret Scarry,Sylvia J. Scudder
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2008
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 463
  • ISBN Code: 9780387713960

Summary: This book highlights studies addressing significant anthropological issues in the Americas from the perspective of environmental archaeology. The book uses case studies to resolve questions related to human behavior in the past rather than to demonstrate the application of methods. Each chapter is an original or revised work by an internationally-recognized scientist. This second edition is based on the 1996 book of the same title. The editors have invited back a number of contributors from the first edition to revise and update their chapter. New studies are included in order to cover recent developments in the field or additional pertinent topics.


Handbook of Latin American Studies
  • Author : N.A
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1985
  • Category: Latin America
  • Pages : N.A
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: Contains records describing books, book chapters, articles, and conference papers published in the field of Latin American studies. Coverage includes relevant books as well as over 800 social science and 550 humanities journals and volumes of conference proceedings. Most records include abstracts with evaluations.



History of Latin American Archaeology
  • Author : Augusto Oyuela-Caycedo
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1994
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 212
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: This work aims to broaden the perspectives of the development of archaeology. These papers, by Latin American archaeologists, analyze the history of Latin American archaeology through the study of artifacts like lithics and maize.


Nutritional Consequences of Prehistoric Subsistence Strategies in Lower Central America
  • Author : Lynette Caryl Norr
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1991
  • Category: Hunting and gathering societies
  • Pages : 626
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: This thesis presents new data on subsistence strategies and examines patterns of nutritional status of prehistoric populations that inhabited tropical coastal environments in lower Central America during the period from 5000 B.C. to A.D. 1550. The subsistence bases of archaeological populations are reconstructed using the stable carbon and stable nitrogen isotopic composition of human bone collagen. The effect of a monotonous diet of a starchy grain such as maize on the health of these populations is evaluated through the examination of individual human skeletal remains for macroscopic indications of nutritional stress. The skeletal remains of over 500 individuals from over twenty sites in Panama and Costa Rica were examined for patterns of subsistence and nutritional status. From this database, 284 individuals were sampled for stable isotope analysis for dietary reconstruction, and 309 individuals were examined for (1) infection, (2) porotic hyperostosis (iron-deficiency anemia), and (3) enamel hypoplasias. The results of the stable isotope analyses of the human bone collagen indicate that the prehistoric diets of lower Central America were generally mixed diets, including terrestrial and marine protein resources, with maize (Zea mays) as a carbohydrate source of varying importance through time. In central Pacific Panama, maize consumption peaked by 200 B.C.-A.D. 500 and maintained that level of consumption or declined slightly over the next 500-1000 years. In northwestern Costa Rica the importance of maize in the diet over the last 2500 years was high, but declined over time in favor of marine fish at sites along the coastal bays. Are any of the observed pathologies directly related to nutritional stress as a result of subsistence choices? Some populations show serious trends toward a particular food resource, such as marine fish or maize, but no food resource category was excessively consumed to the exclusion of all others. Of the groups examined here, each shows a different pattern of stress or infection on the skeleton. These patterns of stress do not seem to be directly related to specific nutritional deficiencies, but rather related to lifestyles associated with geography, settlement, sanitation, and subsistence strategies.






The Emergence of Pottery
  • Author : William K.. Barnett,William K. Barnett,John W. Hoopes,Robert McAdams,Bruce Smith
  • Publisher : Smithsonian Inst Press
  • Release Date : 1995
  • Category: Industries, Prehistoric.
  • Pages : 285
  • ISBN Code: 9781560985174

Summary: Includes chapters by A.C. Roosevelt on Amazonia; A. Oyuela-Caycedo on San Jacinto I, Colombia; C. Rodr iguez on north coastal Colombia; J.E. Damp and L.P. Vargas on Valdivia, Ecuador; R. Cooke on Monagrillo, Panama; J.W. Hoopes on the Central American isthmus; B. Arroyo on El Salvador; and J.E. Cla



The Archaeology of Settlement Abandonment in Middle America
  • Author : James M. Skibo,Takeshi Inomata,Ronald W. Webb
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2003
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 247
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: Mesoamerican archaeologists have long been interested in the collapse of political systems or civilizations but have been slow to undertake detailed abandonment analyses of specific settlements. The Archaeology of Settlement Abandonment in Middle America explores some of the old questions in Middle American archaeology in light of the newer theoretical approach provided by abandonment studies. Unlike much of the abandonment work previously done in the American Southwest, a number of contributions to this volume examine relatively large population centers. Among the original contributions in this collection is the discovery that deposits resulting from termination rituals are more common than previously thought. Several chapters point out that structures and places can continue to serve ritual functions even after abandonment. Another finding is that the causes of abandonment—warfare, economic marginalization, or natural cataclysm—are likely to have varied effects on different social groups, which in turn sheds light on occupational histories in specific sites preceding major abandonments.


Pacific Latin America in Prehistory
  • Author : Michael Blake
  • Publisher : Washington State University Press
  • Release Date : 1999
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 223
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: Studying the similarities, and the many differences, of these varied prehistoric cultures can help us understand some central issues in archaeology - to what extent were cultural variations caused by different historical traditions, environmental conditions, and interactions with neighboring peoples, and how do civilizations arise?




Traces on Tropical Tools
  • Author : Channah José Nieuwenhuis
  • Publisher : Leiden University Press
  • Release Date : 2002
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 152
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: This volume presents the results of an analysis of microscopic wear traces on chert artefacts from a variety of pre-ceramic period sites in Colombia. Nieuwenhuis uses wear trace analysis to explore the relationship between Abrian and Tequendamian artefacts, and the different systems of tool production and use. Focusing on material from sites in the high plain of Bogota and the middle Magdalena Valley, Nieuwenhuis extends the study to consider the complex relationships between tool use and changes in climate and environment. The distinction between Tequendamian and Abrian artefact classes has long been related to the climatic, vegetational and faunal changes of the Pleistocene/Holocene transition. Tequendamian tools were thought to belong to late Pleistocene hunters of large game in open landscapes, but were gradually replaced by Abrian tools at the onset of the Holocene; Abrian tools were considered a specialised adaptation to the changing environment, and were used by Holocene foragers exploiting the resources of the tropical rainforest. In the past decade, however, the strict chronological division between the two classes has become blurred. Nieuwenhuis argues that the Abrian tools represent a simple, multifunctional, versatile toolkit, while Tequendamian tools did not have an explicit specialised function, but served various domestic tasks, and were used for some sort of status-related exchange."




Zooarchaeology of South America
  • Author : Guillermo L. Mengoni Goñalons
  • Publisher : British Archaeological Reports Limited
  • Release Date : 2004
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 220
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: This volume presents eleven specialised and technical papers, plus an introduction, on the zooarchaeology of pre-Hispanic South America.



San Jacinto 1
  • Author : Augusto Oyuela-Caycedo,Renee M. Bonzani
  • Publisher : University Alabama Press
  • Release Date : 2005
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 222
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: A significant work of neotropical archaeology presenting evidence of early hunter-gatherers who produced fiber-tempered ceramics. Few topics in the development of humans have prompted as much interest and debate as those of the origins of pottery and agriculture. The first appearance of pottery in any area of the world is heralded as a new stage in the progress of humans toward a more complex arrangement of thought and society. Cultures are defined and separated by the occurrence of pottery types, and the association of pottery with mobility and agriculture continues to drive research in anthropology. For these reasons, the discovery of the earliest fiber-tempered pottery in the New World and carbonized remains identified as maize kernels is exciting. San Jacinto 1 is the archaeological site located in the savanna region of the north coast of Colombia, South America, where excavations by led by the authors have revealed evidence of mobile hunter-gatherers who made pottery and who collected and processed plants from 6000 to 5000 B.P. The site is believed to show an early human adaptation to the tropics in the context of significant environmental changes that were taking place at the time. This volume presents the data gathered and the interpretations made during excavation and analysis of the San Jacinto 1 site. By examining the social activities of a human population in a highly seasonal environment, it adds greatly to our contemporary understanding of the historical ecology of the tropics. Study of the artifacts excavated at the site allows a window into the early processes of food production in the New World. Finally, the data reveals that the origins of ceramic technology in the tropics were tied to a reduction in mobility and an increase in territoriality and are widely applicable to similar studies of sedentism and agriculture worldwide.


Cobble Circles and Standing Stones
  • Author : Jeffrey Quilter
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2004-03
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 218
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: In this first-person tale of archaeological adventure in the tropical forest, Jeffrey Quilter tells the story of his excavation of Rivas, a great ceremonial center at the foot of the Talamanca Mountain range, which flourished between A.D. 900 and 1300, and its fabled gold-filled cemetery, the Panteón de La Reina. Beginning with the 1992 field season and ending with the last excavations in 1998, Quilter discusses Rivas’ builders and users, theories on chiefdom societies, and the daily interactions and surprises of modern archaeological fieldwork. Writing in the first person with a balance between informal language and academic theory, Quilter concludes that Rivas was a ceremonial center for mortuary rituals to bury chiefly elite on the Panteón. Through use of his narrative technique, he provides the reader with accounts of discoveries as they occurred in fieldwork and the development of interpretations to explain the ancient refuse and cobble architecture his team uncovered. As his story progresses amid the enchantment of the Costa Rican landscape, research plans are adjusted and sometimes completely overturned as new discoveries, often serendipitous ones, are made. Such changing circumstances lead to new insights into the rise and fall of the people who built the cobble circles and raised the standing stones at Rivas, a thousand years ago. The only book in English that focuses on a single archaeological site in Costa Rica, which continues to develop as a destination for archaeological tourism, Cobble Stones and Standing Circles will appeal to laypeople and professionals alike.


Pottery of Prehistoric Honduras
  • Author : John S. Henderson,Reader in Latin Literature Cambridge University and Fellow John Henderson,Marilyn Beaudry-Corbett
  • Publisher : Cotsen Institute of Archaeology
  • Release Date : 1993
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: The contributors to this volume have addressed issues of systematics in pottery analysis that perplex archaeologists wherever they work. These issues are not approached by setting forth rules or by adopting a how-to approach but rather by example as the various researchers give the background to their work, explain their method, and present the classified pottery from their investigations. An in-process statement of what we are learning from pottery about chronology, interaction, and the nature of regional cultural development, this volume can be used by archaeologists working in southern Mesoamerica and northern Central America, who will find it valuable for comparative analysis, and by archaeologists dealing with issues of systematics in pottery analysis in different culture areas but facing many of the same problems that researchers do in Honduras.


Monograph
  • Author : N.A
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1997
  • Category: Archaeology
  • Pages : N.A
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary:


Last Hunters, First Farmers
  • Author : School of American Research (Santa Fé, N.M.). Advanced Seminar,School of American Research (Santa Fe, N.M.)
  • Publisher : School for Advanced Research on the
  • Release Date : 1995
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 354
  • ISBN Code: 9780933452909

Summary: During virtually the entire four-million-year history of our habitation on this planet, humans have been hunters and gatherers, dependent for nourishment on the availability of wild plants and animals. Beginning about 10,000 years ago, however, the most remarkable phenomenon in the course of human prehistory was set in motion. At locations around the world, over a period of about 5,000 years, hunters became farmers. Far more than the domestication of plant and animal species was involved in this revolution, which was accompanied by massive changes in the structure and organization of the societies that adopted agriculture and by a totally new relationship with the environment. Whereas hunter-gatherers live off the land in an extensive fashion, exploiting a diversity of resources over a broad area, farmers utilize the landscape intensively. The implications of these changes in human activity and social organization reverberate down to the present day. The case studies presented here, ranging from the Far East to the American Southwest, provide a global perspective on contemporary research into the origins of agriculture. Downplaying more traditional explanations of the turn to agriculture, such as the influence of marginal environments and population pressures, the contributors to this volume emphasize instead the importance of the resource-rich areas in which agriculture began, the complex social organizations already in place, the role of sedentism, and, in some locales, the advent of economic intensification and competition. This volume resulted from an advanced seminar held at the School of American Research in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Contributors include Ofer Bar-Yosef, Anne BirgitteGebauer, Charles Higham, Lawrence H. Keeley, Richard H. Meadow, Deborah M. Pearsall, T. Douglas Price, Bruce D. Smith, Patty Jo Watson, and W. H. Wills.


Tropical Forests, People and Food
  • Author : Claude Marcel Hladik,A. Hladik,Unesco,O. F. Linares,H. Pagezy
  • Publisher : Parthenon Publishing Group
  • Release Date : 1993
  • Category: Nature
  • Pages : 852
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: For as long as they have inhabited tropical forests, people have used, managed and transformed natural resources in their quest for food. The future of tropical forests and their human inhabitants will continue to depend on the ways - wise or otherwise - in which food is procured and produced. In this book, scientists from disciplines spanning the natural and social sciences have focused on the biocultural interactions between tropical forest food resources and the communities they sustain. The volume's 74 chapters are organized into six major sections dealing with: evolution and history of tropical forests in relation to food availability; food production and nutritional value of wild and semi-cultivated species; adaptive aspects of food consumption and energy expenditure; feeding strategies in relation to environmental variation; cultural factors in food choices; and management alternatives for the rational use of tropical forests in years to come. Each section begins with a background chapter that provides key references and attempts to integrate the individual chapters in terms of overall themes and salient problems. The book's interdisciplinary approach makes it a valuable source of ideas and data upon which natural and social scientists can draw for discussion and analysis. It will also assist managers, planners, development agencies and concerned individuals in making the right decisions about the future of tropical forests and the people who live in them.


Archaeology
  • Author : N.A
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1984
  • Category: Archaeology
  • Pages : N.A
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary:









Reinterpreting Prehistory of Central America
  • Author : Mark Miller Graham
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 1993
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN Code: N.A

Summary: Reinterpreting Prehistory of Central America provides reassessments of the paradigms that have guided - sometimes unconsciously and uncritically - interpretations of ancient Central American society, culture, and art. This volume challenges prevailing notions of Mesoamerica and other intellectual constructs of Central American prehistory, drawing on deconstruction, structuralism, diffusionism, and postprocessual archaeology. Nine chapters by distinguished art historians, anthropologists, and archaeologists from the United States, Costa Rica, and Panama illuminate diverse perspectives on common themes in Central American prehistory, such as the definition of center and periphery, the relation between ethnicity and polychrome ceramic traditions, the cultural meanings of color, and the social reality in mortuary art. A common focus among the authors is the relationship between the so-called high cultures, especially the Maya and their supposedly less-developed neighbors in southern Central America. This volume has more than 150 illustrations. The contributors include Mark Miller Graham, Terence Grieder, Rosemary Joyce, Oscar Fonseca Zamora, Peter S. Briggs, Mary W. Helms, Richard Cooke, Whitney Davis, and Frederick W. Lange.