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The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
  • Author : C. and R. Baldwin
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2020-04-24
  • Category:
  • Pages : 788
  • ISBN Code: 9780461814118

Summary: This is a reproduction of the original artefact. Generally these books are created from careful scans of the original. This allows us to preserve the book accurately and present it in the way the author intended. Since the original versions are generally quite old, there may occasionally be certain imperfections within these reproductions. We're happy to make these classics available again for future generations to enjoy!












Scientific Discourse in Sociohistorical Context
  • Author : Dwight Atkinson
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 1998-11-01
  • Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
  • Pages : 240
  • ISBN Code: 1135691762

Summary: Scientific Discourse in Sociohistorical Context represents the intersection of knowledge and method, examined from the perspective of three distinct disciplines: linguistics, rhetoric-composition, and history. Herein, Dwight Atkinson describes the written language and rhetoric of the Royal Society of London, based on his analysis of its affiliated journal, The Philosophical Transactions, starting with the 17th century advent of modern empirical science through to the present day. Atkinson adopts two independent approaches to the analysis of written discourse--from the fields of linguistics and rhetoric-composition--and then integrates and interprets his findings in light of the history of the Royal Society and British science. Atkinson's study provides the most complete and particular institutional account of a scientific journal, which in this case is a publication that stands as an icon of scientific publication. He supplies his readers with important material found nowhere else in the historical literature, including details about the operation of the journal and its relation to the society. The work embeds the history of the journal and its editors within the history of the Royal Society and other developments in science and society. The synthesis of historical, linguistic, rhetorical, and cultural analysis makes visible certain complex communicative dynamics that could not previously be seen from a single vantage point. The work presented here reinforces how deep historical examinations of linguistic and rhetorical practices have direct bearing on how and what scholars read and write now. Most significantly, this volume demonstrates how these historical activities need to inform current teaching of and thinking about language.


The Neurobiology of Addiction
  • Author : Trevor W. Robbins,Barry J. Everitt,David J. Nutt
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
  • Release Date : 2010
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 307
  • ISBN Code: 0199562156

Summary: In the past two decades, there have been astonishing advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis and nature of drug addiction. We now know the initial molecular sites of action, at identified receptors, of virtually all of the major drugs of abuse including cocaine, heroin, and amphetamine, as well as legal drugs such as nicotine and alcohol. We also understand the main components of a 'reward system' and its connections to major brain regions involved in motivation and emotion, such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex. The Neurobiology of Addiction describes the latest advances in our understanding of addiction. It brings together world class researchers to debate the nature and extent of addiction, as well as its causes, consequences, and treatment. The focus of the book is on the brain processes underlying addiction, in terms of neural systems, neurochemical basis, and molecular changes. Several types of addiction are discussed ranging from illicit drugs - cocaine, amphetamine, and heroin to legal drugs - alcohol and nicotine. In addition, it explores increasingly common behavioural addictions such as gambling and obesity. Included are chapters on vulnerability to addiction, genetic factors, opponent motivational processes, animal models, relapse, cognitive deficits associated with drug abuse, new pharmacological treatments, and current controversies concerning different neuropsychological theories of addiction. Throughout, it reports on cutting edge research using brain imaging, and state of the art molecular methodology. The book will make fascinating reading for students and teachers in the field of neuroscience, pharmacology and psychology, as well as experts in the field.


Experimental Researches in Electricity
  • Author : Michael Faraday
  • Publisher : Library of Alexandria
  • Release Date : 2020-09-28
  • Category:
  • Pages : N.A
  • ISBN Code: 1465608192

Summary: The power which electricity of tension possesses of causing an opposite electrical state in its vicinity has been expressed by the general term Induction; which, as it has been received into scientific language, may also, with propriety, be used in the same general sense to express the power which electrical currents may possess of inducing any particular state upon matter in their immediate neighbourhood, otherwise indifferent. It is with this meaning that I purpose using it in the present paper. Certain effects of the induction of electrical currents have already been recognised and described: as those of magnetization; Ampère's experiments of bringing a copper disc near to a flat spiral; his repetition with electro-magnets of Arago's extraordinary experiments, and perhaps a few others. Still it appeared unlikely that these could be all the effects which induction by currents could produce; especially as, upon dispensing with iron, almost the whole of them disappear, whilst yet an infinity of bodies, exhibiting definite phenomena of induction with electricity of tension, still remain to be acted upon by the induction of electricity in motion. Further: Whether Ampère's beautiful theory were adopted, or any other, or whatever reservation were mentally made, still it appeared very extraordinary, that as every electric current was accompanied by a corresponding intensity of magnetic action at right angles to the current, good conductors of electricity, when placed within the sphere of this action, should not have any current induced through them, or some sensible effect produced equivalent in force to such a current. These considerations, with their consequence, the hope of obtaining electricity from ordinary magnetism, have stimulated me at various times to investigate experimentally the inductive effect of electric currents. I lately arrived at positive results; and not only had my hopes fulfilled, but obtained a key which appeared to me to open out a full explanation of Arago's magnetic phenomena, and also to discover a new state, which may probably have great influence in some of the most important effects of electric currents.




Advances in Astronomy
  • Author : J. M. T. Thompson
  • Publisher : Imperial College Press
  • Release Date : 2005
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 417
  • ISBN Code: 1860947131

Summary: In this highly accessible book, leading scientists from around the world give a general overview of research advances in their subject areas within the field of Astronomy. They describe some of their own cutting-edge research and give their visions of the future. Re-written in a popular and well-illustrated style, the articles are mainly derived from scholarly and authoritative papers published in special issues of the Royal SocietyOCOs Philosophical Transactions, the worldOCOs longest running scientific journal. Carefully selected by the journalOCOs editor, topics include the Big Bang creation of the universe, the formation and evolution of the stars and galaxies, cold dark matter, explosive sun-spot events, and humankindOCOs exploration of the solar system. The book conveys the excitement and enthusiasm of the authors for their work at the frontiers of astronomy. All are definitive reviews for people with a general interest in the future directions of science."





EDGAR HOLDEN, M.D. OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY: PROVINCIAL PHYSICIAN ON A NATIONAL STAGE
  • Author : SANDRA W. MOSS, M. D., M. A.
  • Publisher : Xlibris Corporation
  • Release Date : 2014
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 580
  • ISBN Code: 1499021291

Summary: Edgar Holden, M.D., of Newark: Provincial Physician on a National Stage is a study of medicine and health in Essex County, New Jersey, and its largest city, Newark, in the decades following the Civil War. Th e book is structured around the multifaceted career of Edgar Holden, a Newark physician who transcended the provinciality that characterized Essex County?s medical community and institutions. Th e author demonstrates how institution building and new paradigms of medical authority funneled from burgeoning urban medical centers into the provincial and sluggish medical landscape of northern New Jersey. Th e lack of a medical school within the state stymied the intellectual and professional ferment that the best nineteenth-century American medical schools attracted and fostered. New York City, with its medical institutions and elite practitioners cast a giant shadow over northern New Jersey, which consequently has been somewhat neglected by historians of medicine. An exploration of this lively community of welltrained practitioners, fl edgling institutions, and ailing citizens sheds light on similar medical communities that found themselves importing?but rarely exporting?medical knowledge and expertise.


The Collected Letters of Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek -
  • Author : Lodewijk C. Palm
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2014-04-23
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN Code: 0203093399

Summary: In volume XVI of The Collected Letters of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, 25 letters of Van Leeuwenhoek have been included, all of them written from July 1707 to June 1712. The letters were written to six distinct addressees. The larger part was addressed to the Royal Society in London in general (sixteen letters); and to three of its fellows in particular: John Chamberlayne (280, and 281), who translated the letters of Van Leeuwenhoek for the Royal Society, Hans Sloane (297), and James Petiver (287). Five letters were addressed to Anthonie Heinsius, Grand Pensionary of Holland, who was interested in Van Leeuwenhoek's work until his death in 1720. The correspondence collected in this volume shows the lasting interest evinced by the Royal Society in Van Leeuwenhoek's work. This would change in later years. None of the letters printed here were published in Leeuwenhoek's own time, either in Dutch or in Latin. Fifteen letters to the Royal Society were more or less completely published in an English translation in the Society's Philosophical Transactions. This was also done with two letters to Chamberlayne (280, and 281), and the letter to Petiver (287). The letters to Heinsius, Sloane, and Letter 285 have not been published earlier. Of all letters published here the Dutch texts are now for the first time available in a printed edition. Every volume in the series contains the texts in the original Dutch and an English translation. The great range of subjects studied by Van Leeuwenhoek is reflected in these letters: instruments to measure water; pulmonary diseases; experiments relating to the solution of gold and silver; salt crystals and grains of sand; botanical work, such as duckweed and germination of orange pips; descriptions on protozoa; blood; spermatozoa; and health and hygiene, for example and harmfulness of tea and coffee and the benefits of cleaning teeth.



Measuring and Reasoning
  • Author : Fred L. Bookstein
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2014-02-28
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Pages : 544
  • ISBN Code: 1107024153

Summary: This exploration of empirical inference in science presents a formal description of the process by which scientific measurements support convincing explanations of the world around us.


The Philosophical Transactions
  • Author : Charles Hutton,George Shaw,Richard Pearson
  • Publisher : Wentworth Press
  • Release Date : 2019-03-05
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 752
  • ISBN Code: 9780530062389

Summary: This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.



1785-1790
  • Author : Charles Hutton,Royal Society (Great Britain),George Shaw
  • Publisher : Wentworth Press
  • Release Date : 2019-03-24
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 782
  • ISBN Code: 9781011163403

Summary: This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important, and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work was reproduced from the original artifact, and remains as true to the original work as possible. Therefore, you will see the original copyright references, library stamps (as most of these works have been housed in our most important libraries around the world), and other notations in the work. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. As a reproduction of a historical artifact, this work may contain missing or blurred pages, poor pictures, errant marks, etc. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.



New Theory about Light and Colour
  • Author : Sir Isaac Newton
  • Publisher : Library of Alexandria
  • Release Date : 2020-09-28
  • Category:
  • Pages : N.A
  • ISBN Code: 1465595619

Summary: To perform my late promise to you, I shall without further ceremony acquaint you, that in the beginning of the Year 1666 (at which time I applyed my self to the grinding of Optick glasses of other figures than Spherical,) I procured me a Triangular glass-Prisme, to try therewith the celebrated Phænomena of Colours. And in order thereto having darkened my chamber, and made a small hole in my window-shuts, to let in a convenient quantity of the Suns light, I placed my Prisme at his entrance, that it might be thereby refracted to the opposite wall. It was at first a very pleasing divertisement, to view the vivid and intense colours produced thereby; but after a while applying my self to consider them more circumspectly, I became surprised to see them in an oblong form; which, according to the received laws of Refraction, I expected should have been circular. They were terminated at the sides with streight lines, but at the ends, the decay of light was so gradual, that it was difficult to determine justly, what was their figure; yet they seemed semicircular. Comparing the length of this coloured Spectrum with its breadth, I found it about five times greater; a disproportion so extravagant, that it excited me to a more then ordinary curiosity of examining, from whence it might proceed. I could scarce think, that the various Thickness of the glass, or the termination with shadow or darkness, could have any Influence on light to produce such an effect; yet I thought it not amiss, first to examine those circumstances, and so tryed, what would happen by transmitting light through parts of the glass of divers thicknesses, or through holes in the window of divers bignesses, or by setting the Prisme without so, that the light might pass through it, and be refracted before it was terminated by the hole: But I found none of those circumstances material. The fashion of the colours was in all these cases the same.


Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation
  • Author : Professor and Chair Department of Pharmaceutical Health Outcomes and Policy University of Houston College of Pharmacy Houston Texas Rajender R Aparasu, Ed.,Rajender R. Aparasu,John P. Bentley
  • Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Publishers
  • Release Date : 2014-03-01
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 375
  • ISBN Code: 1449691315

Summary: Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation is a unique resource that provides a balanced approach covering critical elements of clinical research, biostatistical principles, and scientific literature evaluation techniques for evidence-based medicine. This accessible text provides comprehensive course content that meets and exceeds the curriculum standards set by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). Written by expert authors specializing in pharmacy practice and research, this valuable text will provide pharmacy students and practitioners with a thorough understanding of the principles and practices of drug literature evaluation with a strong grounding in research and biostatistical principles. Principles of Research Design and Drug Literature Evaluation is an ideal foundation for professional pharmacy students and a key resource for pharmacy residents, research fellows, practitioners, and clinical researchers. FEATURES * Chapter Pedagogy: Learning Objectives, Review Questions, References, and Online Resources * Instructor Resources: PowerPoint Presentations, Test Bank, and an Answer Key * Student Resources: a Navigate Companion Website, including Crossword Puzzles, Interactive Flash Cards, Interactive Glossary, Matching Questions, and Web Links From the Foreword: "This book was designed to provide and encourage practitioner s development and use of critical drug information evaluation skills through a deeper understanding of the foundational principles of study design and statistical methods. Because guidance on how a study s limited findings should not be used is rare, practitioners must understand and evaluate for themselves the veracity and implications of the inherently limited primary literature findings they use as sources of drug information to make evidence-based decisions together with their patients. The editors organized the book into three supporting sections to meet their pedagogical goals and address practitioners needs in translating research into practice. Thanks to the editors, authors, and content of this book, you can now be more prepared than ever before for translating research into practice." L. Douglas Ried, PhD, FAPhA Editor-in-Chief Emeritus, Journal of the American Pharmacists Association Professor and Associate Dean for Academic Affairs, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, Texas"




Soil Carbon Dynamics
  • Author : Werner L. Kutsch,Michael Bahn,Andreas Heinemeyer
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2010-01-07
  • Category: Technology & Engineering
  • Pages : N.A
  • ISBN Code: 1139483161

Summary: Carbon stored in soils represents the largest terrestrial carbon pool and factors affecting this will be vital in the understanding of future atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This book provides an integrated view on measuring and modeling soil carbon dynamics. Based on a broad range of in-depth contributions by leading scientists it gives an overview of current research concepts, developments and outlooks and introduces cutting-edge methodologies, ranging from questions of appropriate measurement design to the potential application of stable isotopes and molecular tools. It includes a standardised soil CO2 efflux protocol, aimed at data consistency and inter-site comparability and thus underpins a regional and global understanding of soil carbon dynamics. This book provides an important reference work for students and scientists interested in many aspects of soil ecology and biogeochemical cycles, policy makers, carbon traders and others concerned with the global carbon cycle.


Science Periodicals in Nineteenth-Century Britain
  • Author : Gowan Dawson,Bernard Lightman,Sally Shuttleworth,Jonathan R. Topham
  • Publisher : Unknown
  • Release Date : 2020
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 424
  • ISBN Code: 022667651X

Summary: "Significant characteristics of modern scientific journals, including their role in the certification and registration of scientific knowledge, emerged only toward the end of the nineteenth and into the twentieth century. The nineteenth century was a period of rapid expansion and diversification in scientific periodicals, and this collection sets the historical exploration of those periodicals on a new footing, examining their distinctive purposes and character. Specifically, it shows the important role they played in expanding, developing, and organizing communities of scientific practitioners and devotees during a century that witnessed blanket transformations in the scientific enterprise"--


Researches on the Foraminifera
  • Author : William Benjamin Carpenter
  • Publisher : Franklin Classics
  • Release Date : 2018-10-14
  • Category:
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN Code: 9780342932603

Summary: This work has been selected by scholars as being culturally important and is part of the knowledge base of civilization as we know it. This work is in the public domain in the United States of America, and possibly other nations. Within the United States, you may freely copy and distribute this work, as no entity (individual or corporate) has a copyright on the body of the work. Scholars believe, and we concur, that this work is important enough to be preserved, reproduced, and made generally available to the public. To ensure a quality reading experience, this work has been proofread and republished using a format that seamlessly blends the original graphical elements with text in an easy-to-read typeface. We appreciate your support of the preservation process, and thank you for being an important part of keeping this knowledge alive and relevant.



A Social History of Truth
  • Author : Steven Shapin
  • Publisher : University of Chicago Press
  • Release Date : 1994-06-15
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 483
  • ISBN Code: 9780226750187

Summary: In A Social History of Truth, a leading scholar addresses these universal questions through an elegant recreation of a crucial period in the history of early modern science: the social world of gentlemen-philosophers in seventeenth-century England. Steven Shapin paints a vivid picture of the relations between gentlemanly culture and scientific practice. He argues that problems of credibility in science were solved through the codes and conventions of genteel conduct: trust, civility, honor, and integrity.