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Instrumental Traditions and Theories of Light
  • Author : Xiang Chen
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-03-07
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 213
  • ISBN Code: 9401141959

Summary: An analysis of the optical revolution in the context of early 19th century Britain. Far from merely involving the replacement of one optical theory by another, the revolution also involved substantial changes in instruments and the practices that surrounded them. People's judgements about classification, explanation and evaluation were affected by the way they used such optical instruments as spectroscopes, telescopes, polarisers, photometers, gratings, prisms and apertures. There were two instrumental traditions in this historical period, each of which nurtured a body of practice that exemplified how optical instruments should be operated, and especially how the eye should be used. These traditions functioned just like paradigms, shaping perspectives and even world views. Readership: Scholars and graduate students in the history of science, history of instrument, philosophy of science and science studies. Can also be used as a textbook in graduate courses on 19th century physics.



Geographical Knowledge and Imperial Culture in the Early Modern Ottoman Empire
  • Author : Asst Prof Pinar Emiralioglu
  • Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • Release Date : 2014-03-28
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 210
  • ISBN Code: 9781472415332

Summary: Exploring the reasons for a flurry of geographical works in the Ottoman Empire in the sixteenth century, this study analyzes how cartographers, travellers, astrologers, historians and naval captains promoted their vision of the world and the centrality of the Ottoman Empire in it. It proposes a new case study for the interconnections among empires in the period, demonstrating how the Ottoman Empire shared political, cultural, economic, and even religious conceptual frameworks with contemporary and previous world empires.



Cavendish
  • Author : Christa Jungnickel,Russell McCormmach,Professor of History of Science Russell McCormmach
  • Publisher : Bucknell University Press
  • Release Date : 1999
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 814
  • ISBN Code: 9780838754450

Summary: "The Cavendishes flourished during the high tide of British aristocracy following the revolution of 1688-89, and the case can be made that this aristocracy knew its finest hour when Henry Cavendish gently laid his delicate weights in the pan of his incomparable precision balance. For this it took two generations and two kinds of invention, one in social forms and the other in scientific technique. This biography tells how it came to pass."--BOOK JACKET.



Michael Foster and the Cambridge School of Physiology
  • Author : Gerald L. Geison
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release Date : 2015-03-08
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 426
  • ISBN Code: 1400869110

Summary: Despite great ferment and activity among historians of science in recent years, the history of physiology after 1850 has received little attention. Gerald Geison makes an important contribution to our knowledge of this neglected area by investigating the achievements of English physiologists at the Cambridge School from 1870 to 1900. He describes individual scientists, their research, the scientific issues affecting their work, and socio-institutional influences on the group. He pays special attention to the personality and contributions of Michael Foster, founding father of the Cambridge School. Foster's specific research interest was the origin of the rhythmic heartbeat, and the author contends that the school itself descended from and developed around this concern. Originally published in 1978. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.


Enlightened Zeal
  • Author : Theodore Binnema
  • Publisher : University of Toronto Press
  • Release Date : 2014-03-21
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 488
  • ISBN Code: 1442666951

Summary: Enlightened Zeal examines the fascinating history of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s involvement in scientific networks during the company’s two-hundred year chartered monopoly. Working from the company’s voluminous records, Ted Binnema demonstrates the significance of science in the company’s corporate strategies. Initially highly secretive about all of its activities, the HBC was by 1870 an exceptionally generous patron of science. Aware of the ways that a commitment to scientific research could burnish its corporate reputation, the company participated in intricate symbiotic networks that linked the HBC as a corporation with individuals and scientific organizations in England, Scotland, and the United States. The pursuit of scientific knowledge could bring wealth and influence, along with tribute, fame, and renown, but science also brought less tangible benefits: adventure, health, happiness, male companionship, self-improvement, or a sense of meaning. The first study of scientific research in any chartered company over the entire course of its monopoly, Enlightened Zeal expands our understanding of social networks in science, establishes the vast scope of the HBC’s contribution to public knowledge, and will inspire new research into the history of science in other chartered monopolies.


Fields of Influence
  • Author : James Hamilton
  • Publisher : A&C Black
  • Release Date : 2001-07-31
  • Category: Art
  • Pages : 174
  • ISBN Code: 9781902459103

Summary: The distinction between 'Artist' and 'Scientist', so plain to our twenty-first-century eyes, had not fully evolved in the early and middle nineteenth century. In fact, it can be argued that there was barely a division at all, but a community of interchange and understanding, and palpable, constructive friendships between artists and 'natural philosophers', as scientists were called in the early nineteenth century.A central purpose of this book is to show something of the pattern of interchange between artists and scientists. From this starting point the contributors have tackled a fascinating range of subjects - the roots of Humphry Davy's visions and visionary writing; the strong scientific undertow in the paintings of John Martin; John Constable's knowledge of the Beaufort Scale at the time he painted his sky studies; the genesis of the portrait collections of learned societies in nineteenth-century London; and the work of Harriet Jane Moore, a shadowy figure in the worlds of art and science, but the painter of a unique series of watercolour interiors of Michael Faraday's laboratory at the Royal Institution.


The Dynamics of Science and Technology
  • Author : W. Krohn,E.T. Layton Jr.,P. Weingart
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 294
  • ISBN Code: 9400998287

Summary: The interrelations of science and technology as an object of study seem to have drawn the attention of a number of disciplines: the history of both science and technology, sociology, economics and economic history, and even the philosophy of science. The question that comes to mind is whether the phenomenon itself is new or if advances in the disciplines involved account for this novel interest, or, in fact, if both are intercon nected. When the editors set out to plan this volume, their more or less explicit conviction was that the relationship of science and technology did reveal a new configuration and that the disciplines concerned with 1tS analysis failed at least in part to deal with the change because of conceptual and methodological preconceptions. To say this does not imply a verdict on the insufficiency of one and the superiority of any other one disciplinary approach. Rather, the situation is much more complex. In economics, for example, the interest in the relationship between science and technology is deeply influenced by the theoretical problem of accounting for the factors of economic growth. The primary concern is with technology and the problem is whether the market induces technological advances or whether they induce new demands that explain the subsequent diffusion of new technologies. Science is generally considered to be an exogenous factor not directly subject to market forces and, therefore, appears to be of no interest.


The Life of Stars
  • Author : Giora Shaviv
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2009-10-03
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 504
  • ISBN Code: 9783642020889

Summary: It is the stars, The stars above us, govern our conditions. William Shakespeare, King Lear A Few Words about What, Why and How The structure of the stars in general, and the Sun in particular, has been the subject of extensivescienti?cresearchanddebateforoveracentury.Thediscoveryofquantum theoryduringthe?rsthalfofthenineteenthcenturyprovidedmuchofthetheoretical background needed to understand the making of the stars and how they live off their energysource. Progress in the theoryof stellar structurewasmade through extensive discussions and controversies between the giants of the ?elds, as well as brilliant discoveries by astronomers. In this book, we shall carefully expose the building of the theory of stellar structure and evolution, and explain how our understanding of the stars has emerged from this background of incessant debate. About hundred years were required for astrophysics to answer the crucial ques tions: What is the energy source of the stars? How are the stars made? How do they evolve and eventually die? The answers to these questions have profound im plications for astrophysics, physics, and biology, and the question of how we our selves come to be here. While we already possess many of the answers, the theory of stellar structure is far from being complete, and there are many open questions, for example, concerning the mechanisms which trigger giant supernova explosions. Many internal hydrodynamic processes remain a mystery. Yet some global pictures can indeed be outlined, and this is what we shall attempt to do here.



Science and Exploration in the Pacific
  • Author : Margarette Lincoln
  • Publisher : Boydell & Brewer
  • Release Date : 2001
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 248
  • ISBN Code: 9780851158365

Summary: This volume contains studies of scientific and cultural discoveries made on Cook's 1768-7 voyage to the South Sea in Endeavour, and issues emerging from this and successive Pacific voyages.



The Letters of Sir Joseph Banks
  • Author : Joseph Banks,Neil Chambers
  • Publisher : World Scientific
  • Release Date : 2000
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 420
  • ISBN Code: 9781860942044

Summary: Sir Joseph Banks was a great Georgian figure. He circumnavigated the world with Captain James Cook on the H.M.S. Endeavor (1768-1771). He took with him a team of naturalists, illustrators and assistants at a personal cost of pounds 10,000. They made unprecedented collections of flora and fauna in most of the places the H.M.S. Endeavor visited. Banks also led the first British scientific expedition to Iceland, in 1772. Later, he settled in London and assembled an enormous herbarium-cum-library. This was remarkable for its size and for the unique material gathered from the Pacific. Banks was elected President of the Royal Society in 1778, a position he held for 41 years -- the longest anyone has served in that capacity. He was also the Director of the Royal Botanical Gardens at Kew, which flourished under his control and became greater than any other. He was also an influential privy councilor and advisor to George III and the government. Banks was therefore at the scientific and social centre ofGeorgian life for more than five decades of rapid change. Once established in this position, he developed an enormous, global network of correspondence, using letters to shape events, to further knowledge, and to build an empire. There was almost no aspect too insignificant for his attention: and on matters of importance, his opinion was frequently sought. He has been called the "Fathers of Australia" for his role in establishing and then actively supporting colonies on the continent he visited with Cook. On matters of trade or agriculture, botany or horticulture, exploration or navigation, coinage, drainage and science, his views could hardly be avoided. Yet, he was a warm, authoritativewriter, with a "roiling" prose style. His letters make interesting reading for their variety as well as their insight into both his public and private life. This selection is from the over 5,000 letters which he wrote, and will in


From Discrete to Continuous
  • Author : K. Neal
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-06-29
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Pages : 175
  • ISBN Code: 940170077X

Summary: In the early modern period, a crucial transformation occurred in the classical conception of number and magnitude. Traditionally, numbers were merely collections of discrete units that measured some multiple. Magnitude, on the other hand, was usually described as being continuous, or being divisible into parts that are infinitely divisible. This traditional idea of discrete number versus continuous magnitude was challenged in the early modern period in several ways. This detailed study explores how the development of algebraic symbolism, logarithms, and the growing practical demands for an expanded number concept all contributed to a broadening of the number concept in early modern England. An interest in solving practical problems was not, in itself, enough to cause a generalisation of the number concept. It was the combined impact of novel practical applications together with the concomitant development of such mathematical advances as algebraic notation and logarithms that produced a broadened number concept.


Stuffed Animals and Pickled Heads
  • Author : Stephen T. Asma
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2003-05-01
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN Code: 9780195347463

Summary: The natural history museum is a place where the line between "high" and "low" culture effectively vanishes--where our awe of nature, our taste for the bizarre, and our thirst for knowledge all blend happily together. But as Stephen Asma shows in Stuffed Animals and Pickled Heads, there is more going on in these great institutions than just smart fun. Asma takes us on a wide-ranging tour of natural history museums in New York and Chicago, London and Paris, interviewing curators, scientists, and exhibit designers, and providing a wealth of fascinating observations. We learn how the first museums were little more than high-toned side shows, with such garish exhibits as the pickled head of Peter the Great's lover. In contrast, today's museums are hot-beds of serious science, funding major research in such fields as anthropology and archaeology. "Rich in detail, lucid explanation, telling anecdotes, and fascinating characters.... Asma has rendered a fascinating and credible account of how natural history museums are conceived and presented. It's the kind of book that will not only engage a wide and diverse readership, but it should, best of all, send them flocking to see how we look at nature and ourselves in those fabulous legacies of the curiosity cabinet."--The Boston Herald.


Mary Somerville and the Cultivation of Science, 1815–1840
  • Author : E.C. Patterson
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-12-06
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 264
  • ISBN Code: 9400968396

Summary: Among the myriad of changes that took place in Great Britain in the first half of the nineteenth century, many of particular significance to the historian of science and to the social historian are discernible in that small segment of British society drawn together by a shared interest in natural phenomena and with sufficient leisure or opportunity to investigate and ponder them. This group, which never numbered more than a mere handful in comparison to the whole population, may rightly be characterized as 'scientific'. They and their successors came to occupy an increasingly important place in the intellectual, educational, and developing economic life of the nation. Well before the arrival of mid-century, natural philosophers and inventors were generally hailed as a source of national pride and of national prestige. Scientific society is a feature of nineteenth-century British life, the best being found in London, in the universities, in Edinburgh and Glasgow, and in a few scattered provincial centres.


The Rise of Statistical Thinking, 1820-1900
  • Author : Theodore M. Porter
  • Publisher : Princeton University Press
  • Release Date : 1986
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 333
  • ISBN Code: 9780691024097

Summary: Not since the invention of the calculus, if ever, has a new field of mathematics found such extensive application as statistics in the twentieth-century. This book presents thoroughly and lucidly the diverse nineteenth-century origins of the mathematical tool of our day. Emphasizing the debt of science to nonspecialist intellectuals, Theodore Porter describes in detail the nineteenth-century background that produced the burst of modern statistical innovation of the early 1900s. He shows that the natural and social sciences were surprisingly interdependent. Statistics arose as a study of society, the science of the statist, and the pioneering statistical physicists and biologists, Maxwell, Boltzmann, and Galton, each introduced statistical models by pointing to analogies between his discipline and social science. The author also examines significant philosophical issues raised by the development of statistics in the 1800s. For a time, the evident success of statistical social science was held to be inconsistent with human free will. Gradually a consensus was developed that the need for statistical methods arose from the diversity of phenomena, which precluded explanation in detail. Debates concerning the nature of statistical knowledge were central to the new indeterminism that began to emerge at the end of the century. -- from back cover.


Handbook of the Psychology of Science
  • Author : Gregory J. Feist, PhD,Michael E. Gorman, PhD
  • Publisher : Springer Publishing Company
  • Release Date : 2012-12-14
  • Category: Psychology
  • Pages : 544
  • ISBN Code: 0826106242

Summary: "Highly recommended."--Choice: Current Reviews for Academic Libraries This handbook is the definitive resource for scholars and students interested in how research and theory within each of the major domains of psychologyódevelopmental, cognitive, personality, and socialóhave been applied to understand the nature of scientific thought and behavior. Edited by two esteemed pioneers in the emerging discipline of the psychology of science, it is the first empirically based compendium of its time. The handbook provides a comprehensive examination of how scientific thinking is learned and evolves from infancy to adolescence and adulthood, and combines developmental and cognitive approaches to show the categorical similarities and differences in thinking between children, adolescents, adults, and scientists. Chapters highlight the breadth and depth of psychological perspectives in the studies of science, from creativity and genius, gender, and conflict and cooperation, to postmodernism and psychobiography. A section on applications offers findings and ideas that can be put to use by educators, policymakers, and science administrators. Contributors examine the importance of mental models in solving difficult technical problems, and the significance of leadership and organizational structure in successful innovation. The final section of the book is devoted to the future of this new field, focusing on how to continue to develop a healthy psychology of science. Key Features: Presents the only empirically based compendium of current knowledge about the psychology of scientific thought and behavior Edited by two pioneers in the discipline of psychology of science Describes how scientific thinking is learned and changes throughout the life span Addresses creativity and genius, gender, conflict and cooperation, postmodernism, and psychobiography Covers applications of the psychology of science that can be used by educators, policymakers, and science administrators


A History of Physical Theories of Comets, From Aristotle to Whipple
  • Author : Tofigh Heidarzadeh
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2008-05-23
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 278
  • ISBN Code: 1402083238

Summary: Although the development of ideas about the motion and trajectory of comets has been investigated piecemeal, we lack a comprehensive and detailed survey of ph- ical theories of comets. The available works either illustrate relatively short periods in the history of physical cometology or portray a landscape view without adequate details. The present study is an attempt to review – with more details – the major physical theories of comets in the past two millennia, from Aristotle to Whipple. My research, however, did not begin with antiquity. The basic question from which this project originated was a simple inquiry about the cosmic identity of comets at the dawn of the astronomical revolution: how did natural philosophers and astronomers define the nature and place of a new category of celestial objects – comets – after Brahe’s estimation of cometary distances? It was from this turning point in the history of cometary theories that I expanded my studies in both the pre-modern and modern eras. A study starting merely from Brahe and ending with Newton, without covering classical and medieval thought about comets, would be incomplete and leave the fascinating achievements of post-Newtonian cometology unexplored.


Rethinking the Scientific Revolution
  • Author : Margaret J. Osler
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2000-03-13
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 340
  • ISBN Code: 9780521667906

Summary: This collection reconsiders canonical figures and the formation of disciplinary boundaries during the Scientific Revolution.


Elements, Principles and Corpuscles
  • Author : Antonio Clericuzio
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2013-04-17
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 232
  • ISBN Code: 9401594643

Summary: In Elements, Principles and Particles, Antonio Clericuzio explores the relationships between chemistry and corpuscular philosophy in the age of the Scientific Revolution. Science historians have regarded chemistry and corpuscular philosophy as two distinct traditions. Clericuzio's view is that since the beginning of the 17th century atomism and chemistry were strictly connected. This is attested by Daniel Sennert and by many hitherto little-known French and English natural philosophers. They often combined a corpuscular theory of matter with Paracelsian chemical (and medical) doctrines. Boyle plays a central part in the present book: Clericuzio redefines Boyle's chemical views, by showing that Boyle did not subordinate chemistry to the principles of mechanical philosophy. When Boyle explained chemical phenomena, he had recourse to corpuscles endowed with chemical, not mechanical, properties. The combination of chemistry and corpuscular philosophy was adopted by a number of chemists active in the last decades of the 17th century, both in England and on the Continent. Using a large number of primary sources, the author challenges the standard view of the corpuscular theory of matter as identical with the mechanical philosophy. He points out that different versions of the corpuscular philosophy flourished in the 17th century. Most of them were not based on the mechanical theory, i.e. on the view that matter is inert and has only mechanical properties. Throughout the 17th century, active principles, as well as chemical properties, are attributed to corpuscles. Given its broad coverage, the book is a significant contribution to both history of science and history of philosophy.


Toxin
  • Author : Alistair J. Lax
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release Date : 2005-10-27
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 204
  • ISBN Code: 0191578509

Summary: What do the following have in common: the promise of Botox as the key to everlasting youthful looks; E. coli O157 hamburger disease; a mysterious illness which killed 35 heroin users in 2000; and the assassination by poisoned umbrella-tip of a Bulgarian dissident in the 1970s? The answer is that all of these are caused by toxins, the powerful biological poisons released by bacteria and some plants. In Toxin, Alistair Lax reveals the panoply of ways in which bacterial toxins overcome the defences of our cells. He explains how they work, how they are so successful in causing major diseases, the terrible human impact they have had, and how apparently 'new' diseases arise from them. He also discusses how we can combat toxins, and how we can harness their actions for beneficial purposes. Enlivened by the very human story of the persistence, rivalries, and insights from which modern microbiology grew, Toxin is the first widely accessible account of this exciting and important topic.


Flatland
  • Author : Edwin Abbott
  • Publisher : Broadview Press
  • Release Date : 2009-11-13
  • Category: Fiction
  • Pages : 252
  • ISBN Code: 9781770481299

Summary: Flatland (1884) is an influential mathematical fantasy that simultaneously provides an introduction to non-Euclidean geometry and a satire on the Victorian class structure, issues of science and faith, and the role of women. A classic of early science fiction, the novel takes place in a world of two dimensions where all the characters are geometric shapes. The narrator, A Square, is a naïve, respectable citizen who is faced with proof of the existence of three dimensions when he is visited by a sphere and is forced to see the limitations of his world. The introduction to this Broadview Edition provides context for the book’s references to Victorian culture and religion, mathematical history, and the history of philosophy. The appendices contain contemporary reviews; extracts from the work of fellow mathematical fantasy writer/mathematician Charles Hinton; Hermann von Helmboltz’s “The Axioms of Geometry” (1870); and autobiographical passages from Abbott’s The Kernel and the Husk (1886).


Seventeenth-century English Recipe Books
  • Author : Betty Travitsky,Anne Lake Prescott
  • Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • Release Date : 2008
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 296
  • ISBN Code: 9780754651956

Summary: The texts reprinted in these two volumes allow readers to reconstruct the history of recipes, both medical and culinary, from the mid-sixteenth to mid-seventeenth century, and situate that history within the larger scientific and intellectual practices of


Compendium of Quantum Physics
  • Author : Daniel Greenberger,Klaus Hentschel,Friedel Weinert
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2009-07-25
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 901
  • ISBN Code: 9783540706267

Summary: With contributions by leading quantum physicists, philosophers and historians, this comprehensive A-to-Z of quantum physics provides a lucid understanding of key concepts of quantum theory and experiment. It covers technical and interpretational aspects alike, and includes both traditional and new concepts, making it an indispensable resource for concise, up-to-date information about the many facets of quantum physics.


The Scientific Intellectual
  • Author : Lewis Samuel Feuer
  • Publisher : Transaction Publishers
  • Release Date : 1991
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 441
  • ISBN Code: 9781412838863

Summary: In The Scientific Intellectual, Lewis S. Feuer traces the evolution of this new human type, seeking to define what ethic inspired him and the underlying emotions that created him. Under the influence of Max Weber the rise of the scientific spirit has been viewed by sociologists as an offspring of the Protestant revolution, with its asceticism and sense of guilt acting as causative agents in the rise of capitalism and the growth of the scientific movement. Feuer takes strong issue with this view, pointing out how it is at odds with what we know of the psychological conditions of modern societies making for human curiosity and its expression in the observation of and experiment with nature.


Science and Religion Around the World
  • Author : John Hedley Brooke,Ronald L. Numbers
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2011-01-11
  • Category: Religion
  • Pages : 336
  • ISBN Code: 0199793204

Summary: The past quarter-century has seen an explosion of interest in the history of science and religion. But all too often the scholars writing it have focused their attention almost exclusively on the Christian experience, with only passing reference to other traditions of both science and faith. At a time when religious ignorance and misunderstanding have lethal consequences, such provincialism must be avoided and, in this pioneering effort to explore the historical relations of what we now call "science" and "religion," the authors go beyond the Abrahamic traditions to examine the way nature has been understood and manipulated in regions as diverse as ancient China, India, and sub-Saharan Africa. Science and Religion around the World also provides authoritative discussions of science in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam -- as well as an exploration of the relationship between science and the loss of religious beliefs. The narratives included in this book demonstrate the value of plural perspectives and of the importance of location for the construction and perception of science-religion relations.


Swift and Science
  • Author : G. Lynall
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2012-05-22
  • Category: Literary Criticism
  • Pages : 209
  • ISBN Code: 1137016965

Summary: It is thought that Swift was opposed to the new science that heralded the beginning of the modern age, but this book interrogates that assumption, tracing the theological, political, and socio-cultural resonances of scientific knowledge in the early eighteenth century, and considering what they can reveal about Swift's imagination.


Molyneux’s Problem
  • Author : M. Degenaar
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2007-08-26
  • Category: Philosophy
  • Pages : 154
  • ISBN Code: 0585284245

Summary: Suppose that a congenitally blind person has learned to distinguish and name a sphere and a cube by touch alone. Then imagine that this person suddenly recovers the faculty of sight. Will he be able to distinguish both objects by sight and to say which is the sphere and which the cube? This was the question which the Irish politician and scientist William Molyneux posed in 1688 to John Locke. Molyneux's question has intrigued a wide variety of intellectuals for three centuries. Those who have attempted to solve it include Berkeley, Reid, Leibniz, Voltaire, La Mettrie, Condillac, Diderot, Müller, Helmholtz, William James and Gareth Evans. This book is the first comprehensive survey of the history of the discussion about Molyneux's problem. It will be of interest to historians of both philosophy and psychology.


A Vision of Modern Science
  • Author : U. DeYoung
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2011-03-28
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 270
  • ISBN Code: 0230118054

Summary: An examination of a pivotal moment in the history of science through the career and cultural impact of the historically neglected Victorian physicist John Tyndall, establishing him as an important figure of the period, whose scientific discoveries and philosophy of science in society are still relevant today.


Travel Narratives, the New Science, and Literary Discourse, 1569-1750
  • Author : Judy A. Hayden
  • Publisher : Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
  • Release Date : 2012
  • Category: Travel
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN Code: 1409449386

Summary: The focus of this volume is the intersection and the cross-fertilization between the travel narrative, literary discourse and the New Philosophy in the early modern to early eighteenth-century historical periods. Contributors examine how, in an historical era which realized an emphasis on nation and during a time when exploration was laying the foundation for empire, science and the literary discourse of the travel narrative become intrinsically linked.


Great Scientific Experiments
  • Author : Rom Harre
  • Publisher : Courier Corporation
  • Release Date : 2013-01-17
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 224
  • ISBN Code: 0486143600

Summary: Vivid, readable, accurate tales of landmark inquiries include Aristotle's work on embryology of the chick, Galileo's discovery of the law of descent, Newton's experiment on nature of colors, more.


Ordering Life
  • Author : Kristin Johnson
  • Publisher : JHU Press
  • Release Date : 2012-08-15
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 392
  • ISBN Code: 1421406500

Summary: For centuries naturalists have endeavored to name, order, and explain biological diversity. Karl Jordan (1861–1959) dedicated his long life to this effort, describing thousands of new species in the process. Ordering Life explores the career of this prominent figure as he worked to ensure a continued role for natural history museums and the field of taxonomy in the rapidly changing world of twentieth-century science. Jordan made an effort to both practice good taxonomy and secure status and patronage in a world that would soon be transformed by wars and economic and political upheaval. Kristin Johnson traces his response to these changes and shows that creating scientific knowledge about the natural world depends on much more than just good method or robust theory. The broader social context in which scientists work is just as important to the project of naming, describing, classifying, and, ultimately, explaining life.


Paracelsus
  • Author : Ole Peter Grell
  • Publisher : BRILL
  • Release Date : 1998
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 350
  • ISBN Code: 9789004111776

Summary: This volume offers a revisionist interpretation of Paracelsus and Paracelsianism. It points to the need for a new historiographical approach to the man and his ideas, while demonstrating the value of seeing them in their totallity, as well as in their proper historical text.


The Man Who Changed Everything
  • Author : Basil Mahon
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2004-10-15
  • Category: Biography & Autobiography
  • Pages : 256
  • ISBN Code: 0470861711

Summary: This is the first biography in twenty years of James Clerk Maxwell, one of the greatest scientists of our time and yet a man relatively unknown to the wider public. Approaching science with a freshness unbound by convention or previous expectations, he produced some of the most original scientific thinking of the nineteenth century — and his discoveries went on to shape the twentieth century.



Consuming Splendor
  • Author : Linda Levy Peck
  • Publisher : Cambridge University Press
  • Release Date : 2005-09-19
  • Category: History
  • Pages : 431
  • ISBN Code: 9780521842327

Summary: A fascinating study of the ways in which consumption transformed social practices, gender roles, royal policies, and the economy in seventeenth-century England. It reveals for the first time the emergence of consumer society in seventeenth-century England.


How James Watt Invented the Copier
  • Author : René Schils
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2011-12-15
  • Category: Science
  • Pages : 170
  • ISBN Code: 1461408601

Summary: Features 25 different scientists and the ideas which may not have made them famous, but made history... Typically, we remember our greatest scientists from one single invention, one new formula or one incredible breakthrough. This narrow perspective does not give justice to the versatility of many scientists who also earned a reputation in other areas of science. James Watt, for instance, is known for inventing the steam engine, yet most people do not know that he also invented the copier. Alexander Graham Bell of course invented the telephone, but only few know that he invented artificial breathing equipment, a prototype of the ‘iron lung’. Edmond Halley, whose name is associated with the comet that visits Earth every 75 years, produced the first mortality tables, used for life insurances. This entertaining book is aimed at anyone who enjoys reading about inventions and discoveries by the most creative minds. Detailed illustrations of the forgotten designs and ideas enrich the work throughout.