Download full Download Pdf eBook or read it online by anytime or anywhere, Available in format PDF, ePub and Kindle. Click button to Get Books and search your favorite books from the online library. Get Free Account to access unlimited books, download fast and without ads! Some books may be limited by the author, therefore we cannot guarantee that Download Pdf book is in the library. Read the full book today as many books as you like for personal use only.

The Roads from Rio Book by ,

The Roads from Rio Book
  • Author : ,
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2012-04-23
  • Category: Law
  • Pages : 312
  • ISBN Code: 1136450882

Summary: At the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, popularly known as the Rio Earth Summit, the world’s leaders constructed a new "sustainable development" paradigm that promised to enhance environmentally sound economic and social development. Twenty years later, the proliferation of multilateral environmental agreements points to an unprecedented achievement, but is worth examining for its accomplishments and shortcomings. This book provides a review of twenty years of multilateral environmental negotiations (1992-2012). The authors have participated in most of these negotiating processes and use their first-hand knowledge as writers for the International Institute for Sustainable Development’s Earth Negotiations Bulletin as they illustrate the changes that have taken place over the past twenty years. The chapters examine the proliferation of meetings, the changes in the actors and their roles (governments, nongovernmental organizations, secretariats), the interlinkages of issues, the impact of scientific advice, and the challenges of implementation across negotiating processes, including the Framework Convention on Climate Change, the Convention to Combat Desertification, the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Commission on Sustainable Development, the UN Forum on Forests, the chemicals conventions (Stockholm, Basel and Rotterdam), the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, the Convention on Migratory Species and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

Think and Grow Rich Book by Napoleon Hill

Think and Grow Rich Book
  • Author : Napoleon Hill
  • Publisher : Phoemixx Classics Ebooks
  • Release Date : 2021-08-10
  • Category: Self-Help
  • Pages : 399
  • ISBN Code: 3985943753

Summary: Think and Grow Rich - Napoleon Hill - The most famous of all teachers of success spent "a fortune and the better part of a lifetime of effort" to produce the "Law of Success" philosophy that forms the basis of his books and that is so powerfully summarized and explained for the general public in this book. In Think and Grow Rich, Hill draws on stories of Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, and other millionaires of his generation to illustrate his principles. This book will teach you the secrets that could bring you a fortune. It will show you not only what to do but how to do it. Once you learn and apply the simple, basic techniques revealed here, you will have mastered the secret of true and lasting success. Money and material things are essential for freedom of body and mind, but there are some who will feel that the greatest of all riches can be evaluated only in terms of lasting friendships, loving family relationships, understanding between business associates, and introspective harmony which brings one true peace of mind! All who read, understand, and apply this philosophy will be better prepared to attract and enjoy these spiritual values.

The Politics of Knowledge and Global Biodiversity Book by Alice B.M. Vadrot

The Politics of Knowledge and Global Biodiversity Book
  • Author : Alice B.M. Vadrot
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2014-04-24
  • Category: Nature
  • Pages : 320
  • ISBN Code: 1317913493

Summary: The establishment of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) points to the crucial role attributed to science and knowledge for the successful implementation of biodiversity politics by both scientists and policy-makers. With the increased importance of biodiversity in international politics, and in part inspired by the success the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has had in raising awareness of global warming, the call for an ‘IPCC for Biodiversity’ was successful. The Politics of Knowledge and Global Biodiversity gives a full overview of the process of its implementation as finalised in 2013 and proposes an innovative conceptual framework that puts this specific case into a more general perspective of international politics and relations. It provides a detailed empirical analysis of the knowledge politics associated with the establishment of IPBES and its conceptual framework and methodological approach is grounded in a theoretical perspective. This pioneering work is the first to examine IPBES in this way and is essential reading for researchers and scholars of International Relations, Environmental and Biodiversity Politics, Science-Policy Interfaces and Global Environmental Governance. It will also be of interest to political scientists and social scientists.

The Global Governance of Climate Change Book by John J. Kirton,Ella Kokotsis

The Global Governance of Climate Change Book
  • Author : John J. Kirton,Ella Kokotsis
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2016-03-03
  • Category: Political Science
  • Pages : 420
  • ISBN Code: 1317030184

Summary: Climate change control has risen to the top of the international agenda. Failed efforts, centred in the United Nations, to allocate responsibility have resulted in a challenge now reaching crisis stage. John J. Kirton and Ella Kokotsis analyse the generation and effectiveness of four decades of intergovernmental regimes for controlling global climate change. Informed by international relations theories and critical of the prevailing UN approach, Kirton and Kokotsis trace the global governance of climate change from its 1970s origins to the present and demonstrate the effectiveness of the plurilateral summit alternative grounded in the G7/8 and the G20. Topics covered include: - G7/8 and UN competition and convergence on governing climate change - Kyoto obligations and the post-Kyoto regime - The role of the G7/8 and G20 in generating a regime beyond Kyoto - Projections of and prescriptions for an effective global climate change control regime for the twenty-first century. This topical book synthesizes a rich array of empirical data, including new interview and documentary material about G7/8 and G20 governance of climate change, and makes a valuable contribution to understanding the dynamics of governing climate change. It will appeal to scholars, researchers, and policy makers interested in the dynamics behind governance processes within the intergovernmental realm.

Biosimilars of Monoclonal Antibodies Book by Cheng Liu,K. John Morrow, Jr.

Biosimilars of Monoclonal Antibodies Book
  • Author : Cheng Liu,K. John Morrow, Jr.
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Release Date : 2016-12-09
  • Category: Medical
  • Pages : 704
  • ISBN Code: 1118940628

Summary: Addressing a significant need by describing the science and process involved to develop biosimilars of monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs, this book covers all aspects of biosimilar development: preclinical, clinical, regulatory, manufacturing. • Guides readers through the complex landscape involved with developing biosimilar versions of monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs • Features flow charts, tables, and figures that clearly illustrate processes and makes the book comprehensible and accessible • Includes a review of FDA-approved mAb drugs as a quick reference to facts and useful information • Examines new technologies and strategies for improving biosimilar mAbs

The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Book by Marie Hrabanski,Denis Pesche

The Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Book
  • Author : Marie Hrabanski,Denis Pesche
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2016-10-04
  • Category: Nature
  • Pages : 254
  • ISBN Code: 1317309006

Summary: Twenty years after the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) entered into force, the founding of the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) in 2012 was the outcome of a long process of setting biodiversity issues at the top of the global environmental agenda. With contributions from more than a dozen well-renowned researchers in political science, law and sociology, this book analyzes IPBES functioning and challenges in terms of the knowledge selection process and actors involved. The book reveals that, through its conceptual framework, IPBES promotes a pluralistic view of nature that calls for a broadening of the disciplinary frontiers. It combines natural science and social science research and also includes indigenous and local knowledge. IPBES is considered to represent the institutionalization of a permanent knowledge assessment on biodiversity and is often referred to as an IPCC success story, constituting a new stage in global environmental governance. In analyzing the knowledge selection process for IPBES decision making, the book better situates IPBES within the biodiversity and global governance domain. It ultimately argues that the establishment of IPBES provides a new opportunity to coordinate the different international conventions (CBD, RAMSAR, CITES, etc.) and initiatives (international assessment of marine biology, scientific programs, funding, etc.).

Mac OS X Help Line, Tiger Edition Book by Ted Landau,Dan Frakes

Mac OS X Help Line, Tiger Edition Book
  • Author : Ted Landau,Dan Frakes
  • Publisher : Peachpit Press
  • Release Date : 2005-12-20
  • Category: Computers
  • Pages : 1216
  • ISBN Code: 9780132705240

Summary: With every update, Mac OS X grows more powerful, more dependable, and easier to use--and Mac OS X Tiger is no exception. But along with the new features come fresh issues--new areas to troubleshoot, new functionality to unravel, and new glitches waiting to confound even the savviest Mac users. Not to worry. Best-selling author and Mac guru Ted Landau turns his diagnostician's eye on Mac OS X Tiger, arming readers with fix-it knowledge This popular fix-it classic offers more troubleshooting information, tips, and hacks than any other single volume. Chock-full of detailed, understandable advice for maintaining and troubleshooting Mac OS X Tiger, this comprehensive reference is where users will turn before they head to the repair shop. Readers will find solutions for every Mac OS X problem under the sun plus the technical grounding they need to turn a diagnostic eye on their own operating systems. Filled with tips, tools, and preventive measures, the guide includes in-depth coverage of Library directories and folders, file and font maintenance, crash prevention and recovery, and more.

Construction Guide For New Investors in Real Estate - With 5 Ready to Build Contractor Spec House Plans Book by Colvin Tonya Nyakundi,John Davidson

Construction Guide For New Investors in Real Estate - With 5 Ready to Build Contractor Spec House Plans Book
  • Author : Colvin Tonya Nyakundi,John Davidson
  • Publisher : Mendon Cottage Books
  • Release Date : 2015-02-01
  • Category: House & Home
  • Pages : 126
  • ISBN Code: 1311582339

Summary: Introduction Identifying and Buying a Piece of Land Where to Get the Money Getting Government Approval Supervising the Construction or Hiring a Construction Company Subletting/Selling a Property – How to Go About It How to Save Money and Maximize Profits duringConstruction Mistakes that Most People Make in Real Estate Investments Conclusion Spec Pages About the Designer - Author PLAN DISCLAIMER #H62 1330 Sq Ft 3 Bedroom 2 Bath #H63 1543 Sq Ft 2 Bedroom 2 Bath #H65 1140 Sq Ft 3 Bedroom 2 Bath #H96 1627 Sq Ft 3 Bedroom 2 Bath #H97 1720 Sq Ft 3 Bedroom 2 Bath Links to Download PDF Version of High Resolution Plans for Printing How to Print Plans Purchase Plans On DVD Plan Copyright Information Copyright Publisher Introduction Several factors have made more and more people to opt out of stock market investments and into the lucrative real estate industry. Unlike most of the other forms of investments, buying or constructing homes involve minimal risks while investors are always guaranteed of profits. The best thing about real estate investments is thatyou don’t have to worry about whether you are going to sell the home, lease or occupy it. Rest assured that it is a worthy investment as the value of real property keeps on appreciating regardless of its location or design. However, the rate at which the value of real property appreciates is dependent on several factors. You should therefore carefully analyze all the factors before making up your mind on whether to invest your money and time in a given property. If you are thinking of buying a piece of land so as to construct a house, you should never be in a hurry to sign any deal. Just take your time during the planning stage to analyze the value of the piece of land and predict the rate at which the value of the property is going to appreciate depending on its location, nearby amenities and future government and/or private sector investments in the area. Those with experience in the real estate industry will find it quite easy to buy land anywhere as they can easily gauge the value of the property. For those without experience in the real estate industry, this book gives them an insight into the dos and don’ts when it comes to real estate investments. From this book, you are guaranteed of learning important real estate tips and ideas even if you have experience in the real estate industry. The book “Construction Guide for New Investors in Real Estate” covers all aspects of real estate investments starting from acquiring a piece of land, buying construction materials, hiring a construction company, the interior and exterior features to include in a home and marketing of the newly built homes. You’ll also learn how to maximize profits by minimizing costs and adopting effective marketing techniques. This book also contains a list of mistakes that most people make and hence you’ll get to avoid such mistakes by simply reading it before investing in real estate. Start your journey to real estate investments by reading the whole of this book!!!

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Switzerland 2017 Book by OECD

OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Switzerland 2017 Book
  • Author : OECD
  • Publisher : OECD Publishing
  • Release Date : 2017-11-27
  • Category: ,
  • Pages : 216
  • ISBN Code: 9264279679

Summary: This is the third Environmental Performance Review of Switzerland. It evaluates progress towards sustainable development and green growth, with a focus on water management and biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

South Bronx Battles Book by Carolyn McLaughlin

South Bronx Battles Book
  • Author : Carolyn McLaughlin
  • Publisher : Univ of California Press
  • Release Date : 2019-05-21
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN Code: 0520963806

Summary: Community activist Carolyn McLaughlin takes us on a journey of the South Bronx through the eyes of its community members. Facing burned-out neighborhoods of the 1970s, the community fought back. McLaughlin illustrates the spirit of the community in creating a vibrant, diverse culture and its decades-long commitment to develop nonprofit housing and social-services, and to advocate for better education, health care, and a healthier environment. For the South Bronx to remain a safe haven for poor families, maintaining affordable housing is the central—but most challenging—task. South Bronx Battles is the comeback story of a community that was once in crisis but now serves as a beacon for other cities to rebuild, while keeping their neighborhoods affordable.

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Book by Lewis Carroll

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland Book
  • Author : Lewis Carroll
  • Publisher : Random House
  • Release Date : 2012-08-02
  • Category: Juvenile Fiction
  • Pages : 368
  • ISBN Code: 1448155053

Summary: CELEBRATE 150 YEARS OF ALICE Oh my ears and whiskers, how late its getting! Would you be surprised to see a white rabbit take a watch out of his waistcoat pocket? It certainly seems a remarkable sight to Alice and, full of curiosity, she follows him down a rabbit-hole into a very strange world. She meets a disappearing cat, plays croquet with a bad-tempered Queen, joins a mad Hatter's tea party and becomes entangled in the case of some missing tarts. In Wonderland nothing but out-of-the-way things happen... Includes Through the Looking Glass. BACKSTORY: Learn about the author and what inspired him to create Wonderland, and try writing some nonsense verse!

Community Education and Neoliberalism Book by Camilla Fitzsimons

Community Education and Neoliberalism Book
  • Author : Camilla Fitzsimons
  • Publisher : Springer
  • Release Date : 2017-03-01
  • Category: Education
  • Pages : 287
  • ISBN Code: 3319459376

Summary: This book explores community education in Ireland and argues that neoliberalism has had a profound effect on community education. Rather than retain its foundational characteristics of collective, equality-led principles and practices, community education has lost much of its independence and has been reshaped into spaces characterised by labour-market activation, vocationalisation and marketisation. These changes have often, though not always, run contrary to the wishes of those involved in community education creating enormous tensions for practitioners, course providers and participants.

Competition Policy in the EU Book by Xavier Vives

Competition Policy in the EU Book
  • Author : Xavier Vives
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford
  • Release Date : 2009-08-06
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 400
  • ISBN Code: 0191570605

Summary: A volume that takes stock and looks ahead on the development and implementation of competition policy in the European Union fifty years after the Treaty of Rome. Competition policy has emerged as a key policy in the EU with competition acting as the driving force for economic efficiency and the welfare of citizens. Case law has been established to control and prevent anti-competitve behavior, state aid control has consolidated and evolved towards a more economic approach, and the authority of the EC and the judicial review of the Court of the First Instance (CFI) and the European Court of Justice (ECJ) are firmly etsablished. The book provides an economic approach to competition policy and reflects the main areas of interest, open issues and progress in the area. The volume examines the design of competition policy institutions, the evolution of the implementation of competition policy and its convergence or divergence with US practice, restrictive practices, cartels, abuse of dominance, merger control and state aids. The volume also analyses the interaction of competition policy and regulation, and studies its application to telecoms, banking and energy sectors. All chapters are written by leadfing specialists combining theoretical with practical knowledge and discussing the underpinings of the application of law.

The Political Economy and Media Coverage of the European Economic Crisis Book by Julien Mercille

The Political Economy and Media Coverage of the European Economic Crisis Book
  • Author : Julien Mercille
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2014-08-27
  • Category: Business & Economics
  • Pages : 210
  • ISBN Code: 1317952111

Summary: The European economic crisis has been ongoing since 2008 and while austerity has spread over the continent, it has failed to revive economies. The media have played an important ideological role in presenting the policies of economic and political elites in a favourable light, even if the latter’s aim has been to shift the burden of adjustment onto citizens. This book explains how and why, using a critical political economic perspective and focusing on the case of Ireland. Throughout, Ireland is compared with contemporary and historical examples to contextualise the arguments made. The book covers the housing bubble that led to the crash, the rescue of financial institutions by the state, the role of the European institutions and the International Monetary Fund, austerity, and the possibility of leaving the eurozone for Europe’s peripheral countries. Through a systematic analysis of Ireland’s main newspapers, it is argued that the media reflect elite views and interests and downplay alternative policies that could lead to more progressive responses to the crisis.

bookdown Book by Yihui Xie

bookdown Book
  • Author : Yihui Xie
  • Publisher : CRC Press
  • Release Date : 2016-12-12
  • Category: Mathematics
  • Pages : 138
  • ISBN Code: 1351792601

Summary: bookdown: Authoring Books and Technical Documents with R Markdown presents a much easier way to write books and technical publications than traditional tools such as LaTeX and Word. The bookdown package inherits the simplicity of syntax and flexibility for data analysis from R Markdown, and extends R Markdown for technical writing, so that you can make better use of document elements such as figures, tables, equations, theorems, citations, and references. Similar to LaTeX, you can number and cross-reference these elements with bookdown. Your document can even include live examples so readers can interact with them while reading the book. The book can be rendered to multiple output formats, including LaTeX/PDF, HTML, EPUB, and Word, thus making it easy to put your documents online. The style and theme of these output formats can be customized. We used books and R primarily for examples in this book, but bookdown is not only for books or R. Most features introduced in this book also apply to other types of publications: journal papers, reports, dissertations, course handouts, study notes, and even novels. You do not have to use R, either. Other choices of computing languages include Python, C, C++, SQL, Bash, Stan, JavaScript, and so on, although R is best supported. You can also leave out computing, for example, to write a fiction. This book itself is an example of publishing with bookdown and R Markdown, and its source is fully available on GitHub.

Transforming Multilateral Diplomacy Book by Macharia Kamau,Pamela Chasek,David O'Connor

Transforming Multilateral Diplomacy Book
  • Author : Macharia Kamau,Pamela Chasek,David O'Connor
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2018-03-13
  • Category: Political Science
  • Pages : 354
  • ISBN Code: 0429957408

Summary: Transforming Multilateral Diplomacy provides the inside view of the negotiations that produced the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Not only did this process mark a sea change in how the UN conducts multilateral diplomacy, it changed the way the UN does its business. This book tells the story of the people, issues, negotiations, and paradigm shifts that unfolded through the Open Working Group (OWG) on SDGs and the subsequent negotiations on the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda, from the unique point of view of Ambassador Macharia Kamau, and other key participants from governments, the UN Secretariat, and civil society.

Judicial Dissent in European Constitutional Courts Book by Katalin Kelemen

Judicial Dissent in European Constitutional Courts Book
  • Author : Katalin Kelemen
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Release Date : 2017-09-28
  • Category: Law
  • Pages : 208
  • ISBN Code: 1317110048

Summary: Dissent in courts has always existed. It is natural and healthy that judges disagree on legal issues of a certain importance and difficulty. The question is if it is reasonable to conceal dissent. Not every legal system allows judges to explain their disagreement to the public in a separate opinion attached to the judgment of the court. Most constitutional courts do. This book presents a comparative analysis of the practice of judicial dissent in constitutional courts from the perspective of the civil law tradition. It discusses the theoretical background, presents the history of the institution and today’s practice, thus laying down the basis for an accurate consideration of the phenomenon from a legal perspective.

Maximizing Tableau Server Book by Patrick Sarsfield,Brandi Locker,Adam Mico

Maximizing Tableau Server Book
  • Author : Patrick Sarsfield,Brandi Locker,Adam Mico
  • Publisher : Packt Publishing Ltd
  • Release Date : 2021-10-29
  • Category: Computers
  • Pages : 362
  • ISBN Code: 180107657X

Summary: Enhance the way you use Tableau Server's analytical tools by learning how to manage content to drive user engagement Key Features Understand how to quickly get connected, start publishing workbooks, and adjust basic settings Navigate the Tableau Server interface to filter and locate content, customize viewing options, and automate various tasks Learn best practices for improving the efficiency of workbooks and data sources Book Description Tableau Server is a business intelligence application that provides a centralized location to store, edit, share, and collaborate on content, such as dashboards and curated data sources. This book gets you up and running with Tableau Server to help you increase end-user engagement for your published work as well as reduce or eliminate redundant tasks. You'll explore Tableau Server's structure and how to get started by connecting, publishing content, and navigating the software interface. Next, you'll learn when and how to update the settings of your content at various levels to best utilize Tableau Server's features. You'll understand how to interact with the Tableau Server interface to locate, sort, filter, manage and customize content. Later, the book shows you how to leverage other valuable features that enable you and your audience to share, download, and interact with content on Tableau Server. As you progress, you'll cover principles to increase the performance of your published content. All along, the book shows you how to navigate, interact with, and use Tableau Server with the help of engaging examples and best practices shared by recognized Tableau professionals. By the end of this Tableau book, you'll have a solid understanding of how to use Tableau Server to manage content, automate tasks, and increase end-user engagement. What you will learn Get well-versed in Tableau Server's interface to quickly and easily access essential content Explore the different types of content and navigate through the project hierarchy quickly Understand how to connect, publish, manage, and modify content on Tableau Server Discover how to share content and collaborate with others Automate tedious tasks by creating custom views, alerts, subscriptions, and data refresh schedules Build data visualizations using Web Edit Understand how to monitor disparate metrics on multiple dashboards Who this book is for This Tableau software book is for BI developers, data analysts, and everyday users who have access to Tableau Server and possess basic web navigation skills. No prior experience with Tableau Server is required.

European Higher Education at the Crossroads Book by Adrian Curaj,Peter Scott,Lazăr Vlasceanu,Lesley Wilson

European Higher Education at the Crossroads Book
  • Author : Adrian Curaj,Peter Scott,Lazăr Vlasceanu,Lesley Wilson
  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2012-03-17
  • Category: Education
  • Pages : 1103
  • ISBN Code: 9400739370

Summary: Romania hosts the 2012 Bologna / European Higher Education Area Ministerial Conference and the Third Bologna Policy Forum. In preparation for these meetings, The Executive Agency for Higher Education, Research, Development and Innovation Funding (UEFISCDI) organised the Future of Higher Education - Bologna Process Researchers’ Conference (FOHE-BPRC) in Bucharest on 17-19 October 2011, with the support of the European University Association (EUA) and the Romanian National Committee for UNESCO. The conference brought the voices of researchers into international-level policy making in higher education. The results of the conference are presented in this book. Until now, empirical evidence supporting policies and reforms in higher education has often been a matter of local or regional focus. The development of a pan-European process in higher education policy drives a need to explore wider research topics on which to base policies. This book offers an unprecedented opportunity for higher education researchers to interact and contribute to the political process shaping the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), and to national policy agendas in more than 100 participant countries for the 2012 ministerial events. The book collects more than 50 articles focusing on vital issues in European higher education. These are arranged in sections addressing the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) Principles; Teaching and Learning; Quality Assurance; Mobility; Higher Education Governance in the EHEA; Funding of Higher Education; Diversification of Higher Education Missions; Higher Education Futures and Foresight.

EurASEAA14 Volume I: Ancient and Living Traditions Book by Helen Lewis

EurASEAA14 Volume I: Ancient and Living Traditions Book
  • Author : Helen Lewis
  • Publisher : Archaeopress Publishing Ltd
  • Release Date : 2020-06-18
  • Category: Social Science
  • Pages : 244
  • ISBN Code: 1789695066

Summary: This volume comprises papers originally presented at the EurASEAA14 conference in 2012, updated for publication. It focuses on topics under the broad themes of archaeology and art history, epigraphy, philology, historic archaeology, ethnography, ethnoarchaeology, ethnomusicology, materials studies, and long-distance trade and exchange.